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Vol.7 n°1 january 1982


p.26 The Atari Tutorial, Part 5: Scrolling

[author Chris Crawford]

Coarse and fine scrolling, both horizontally and vertically, let the display screen become a window for viewing large amounts of data.

p.36 A Closer Look at the IBM Personal Computer

[author Gregg Williams]

The Personal Computer is a versatile microcomputer that can be used in almost any application.

p.72 Analog Interfacing In the Real World by

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Learn how to design and build economical analog interfaces.

p.100 MIKBUG and the TRS-80, Part 2: A File Transfer and Debugging Package

[author Robert Labenski]

Use your TRS-80 as a file-transfer terminal and debugging monitor for a 6800 system.

p.132 User's Column: Operating Systems, Languages, Statistics, Pirates, and the Lone Wolf

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Straight talk on a variety of new products from a hard-to-please computer user.

p.160 Build a Joystick A-to-D Converter for the TRS-80 Model I or III, Second In a Series

[author William Barden, Jr.]

A hardware/software project to make your TRS-80 "sensitive" to the analog world.

p.190 Troubleshooting with Electronic Signatures

[author Kenneth M. Piggott]

A "free-running'" microprocessor can help to fix a malfunctioning computer system.

p.216 Memory Expansion for the ZX-80

[author Hilton K. Ernde]

Upgrade your Sinclair ZX-80 for under $200 with a 16 K-byte memory-expansion project.

p.239 An 8080-Based Remote Appliance Controller

[author David C. Staehlin]

BSR X-10 strikes again.

p.304 Clocked Interrupts for the COSMAC Elf

[author Gary H. Price]

Hardware and software provide video-display and variable-period interrupts.

p.344 COSMAC EPROM Programmer

[author Dan Rubis]

How to build a low-cost EPROM programmer based on an RCA 1802 microprocessor.

p.366 An Apple Talks with the Deaf

[author Ned W. Rhodes]

With the hardware and software described here. you can pick up the phone and wish a deaf friend a good day.

p.397 An Effective Text-Compression Algorithm

[author David Cortesi]

Reduce the size of text files by identifying common pairs of letters.

p.410 Structured Programming In BASIC

[author Mark Sobell]

An introduction to the principles of structured programming with examples in Cromemco 32 K Structured BASIC.

p.420 The GEOSAT Program

[author Steve Emmett]

How to tell if your location is suitable for a satellite-receiving antenna.


p.123 The RCA VP-3301 Data Terminal

[author Tim Daneliuk]

p.332 SD Systems' Z80 Starter Kit

[author Wayne Angevine]


p.6 Editorial: Of IBM, Operating Systems, and Rosetta Stones

p.14 Letters

p.114, 206, 433 Technical Forum: Floppy-Disk Performance; Analyze Audio by Visualizing; Z80 Starting Address. One Jump Further

p.118 Education Forum: AC Motor Control: Simple Algorithms and Hardware

p.186 Programming Quickies: Thirty More Days to a Faster Input

p.234, 324, 436 System Notes: Accidental Reset Protection for the Apple II; Add a Peripheral Interface Adapter to Your Apple II; SOFTIM, A Software Timer


p.387 Books Received

p.388 Event Queue

p.393 Clubs and Newsletters

p.394 Software Received

p.404 Ask BYTE

p.416 Product Description: CMOS: Memory with a Future. Ideas Behind CompuPro's RAM 17

p.440 What's New?

p.494 Unclassified Ads

p.495 Reader Service

p.496 BOMB, BOMB Results

In This Issue

IBM's entry into the small-computer market with its Personal Computer was a ·big event in the industry. And that's why we've taken a second look. Showcased in our cover photo by Paul Avis, the IBM Personal Computer is a versatile machine. For an in-depth report on its many features and capabilities read Gregg Williams' article, "A Closer Look at the IBM Personal Computer."

Hardware is our theme this month and among the many articles on that topic are Bill Barden's second in a series, "Build a Joystick A-to-D Converter for the TRS-80 Model I or III," and Kenneth Piggott's "Troubleshooting with Electronic Signatures." As well, learn how to expand your ZX-80's memory, control motors and appliances, and interrupt your Elf. All this plus our regular features and reviews.

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Vol.7 n°2 february 1982


p.38 Build a Computerized Weather Station

[author Steve Ciarcia]

An ambitious variation on a simple project to collect data on prevailing winds.

p.72 A Homebrew Graphics Digitizer

[author Neal Atkins and Enrique Castro-Cid]

Two potentiometers and an elegant mechanical device make an inexpensive digitizer.

p.91 The Atari Tutorial, Part 6: Atari BASIC

[author Lane Winner]

A better understanding of Atari BASIC will have you writing more powerful programs.

p.122 The Input/Output Primer, Part 1: What Is I/O?

[author Steve Leibson]

The first in a six-part input/output series that will explain the way computers talk with the world.

p.148 FIT - A Federal Income Tax Program in UCSD Pascal

[author Edward Heyman]

This program will teach you some fine points of the Pascal language, and it may even save you money.

p.194 Build an EPROM Emulator

[author Eric C. Rehnke]

Dual-port memory can simplify software developments.

p.212 Tax Tips for Computer Owners

[author Melvyn Feuerman and Melvyn Moller]

A new law provides tax breaks if you use your computer for business.

p.225 A Guided Tour of Apple Pascal Units and Libraries

[author Ross Tonkens]

Creating new Pascal Units lets you add powerful features to the Apple II.

p.258 Voice Synthesis for the Color Computer, Third in a Series

[author William Barden, Jr.]

Explore digital recording and playback techniques for the Color Computer.

p.290 Pascal NOW, Let Pascal Balance Your NOW Account

[author Thomas E. Doyle]

Investigate some theoretical issues of data relationships within the context of an eminently practical program.


p.32 The Flexibility of VisiPiot

[author Robert E. Ramsdell]

p.204 Two Tax Aids

[author Mary Jo Kvam]

p.219 Dithertizer II

[author Joe Tomas]

p.252 Omniterm: Smart Terminal Program for the Eighties

[author Bob Liddil]


p.6 Editorial: Report from COMDEX

p.18 Letters

p.216, 372 Book Reviews: Beyond Games: Systems Software for Your 6502 Personal Computer; How to Become a Successful Computer Consultant

p.248 Technical Forum: A Fast Approximation for Fast Fourier

p.327, 376 BYTE's Bugs


p.338 BYTE's Bits

p.340, 413 System Notes: 6809 Machine-Code Disassembler; Double-Width Silentype Graphics for Your Apple

p.365 Ask BYTE

p.373 Clubs and Newsletters

p.377 Event Queue

p.386 Software Received

p.387 Books Received

p.425 What's New?

p.478 Unclassified Ads

p.479 Reader Service

p.480 BOMB. BOMB Results

In This Issue

It's time again to start worrying about your annual accounting to Uncle Sam. April 15 is only two months away. And it's probably time you sat down to crunch out those numbers. As Robert Tinney's cover suggests, staying warm by your computer is an attractive alternative to braving the cold winter winds. To help ease the pain, we review two software packages designed specifically for computing taxes. If you have access to UCSD Pascal, Edward Heyman's federal income tax program can help you avoid overpayments and lost interest. In "Tax Tips for Computer Owners" Melvyn Feuerman and Melvyn Moiler discuss tax breaks for computer owners.

This month we begin another new series: The Input/Output Primer by Steve Leibson. The six-part tutorial will take you through computer interfacing from simple serial and parallel ports to IEEE-STD-488. The Atari Tutorial continues with a look at Atari BASIC. William Barden details an easy way to provide voice synthesis for the Color Computer. And Steve Ciarcia shows you how to build a computerized weather station that will talk to you.

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Vol.7 n°3 march 1982


p.40 Four New Products from Radio Shack

[author Chris Morgan]

New developments from Radio Shack include some surprises.

p.50 Use Voiceprints to Analyze Speech

[author Steve Ciarcia]

The first step in designing a speech-recognition system is analyzing the spectral content of speech.

p.80 The Atarl Tutorial, Part 7: Sound

[author Bob Fraser]

The Atari 400 and 800 computers can generate a variety of noises.

p.100 Build a Half-year Clock for the Color Computer

[author William Barden Jr.]

The inexpensive and accurate half-year clock can be easily interfaced to a Radio Shack Color Computer.

p.126 The Input/Output Primer. Part 2: Interrupts and Direct Memory Access

[author Steve Leibson]

Second in a series that explains the way in which computers talk with the world.

p.142 A BASIC Plotting Subroutine. Sophisticated Plotting with Your MX-80

[author Lawrence J. Bregoli]

Simple software routines let the Epson MX-80 emulate sophisticated ploners.

p.158 Modify Your Paper Tiger for Different Paper Thicknesses

[author R. P. Sarna]

A simple modification increases the versatility of your printer.

p.198 Custom and Standardized Forms for the Microcomputer User

[author Philip Lemmons]

A number of companies stand ready to help you with various stock, custom, or standardized forms.

p.218 The Fill Forms System, CP/M Programs to Cut Down on Paperwork

[author Bill Roch]

Use your computer to fill in standardized forms.

p.248 Lowercase Descenders for the Epson MX-70

[author Bruce Piggott]

Get true lowercase descenders and program your own special characters.

p.278 BYTE Printer Directory

[author Curtis P. Feigel]

A listing of printer manufacturers and their products.

p.456 The Computer Toolbox

[author Mark Bernstein]

The modularity of FORTH gives laboratory computers portability and flexibility.

p.466 Skip Sequential: A New File Structure for Microcomputers

[author Jack Purdum]

An interesting technique for North Star and Microsoft BASICs combines the speed of random-access disk files with the space-saving advantages of sequential-access files.


p.26 Commodore 4022 Printer

[author Joseph Holmes]

p.44 Integral Data Systems' Prism Printer

[author Ed Umlor]

p.68 BYTE's Arcade

p.68 Apple Panic

[author Gregg Williams]

p.70 Missile Command

[author Stanley J. Wszola]

p.74 Dino Wars

[author George Stewart]

p.172 Graphics II by Selanar

[author Daniel Macero, Daniel Holmes, Thomas Banks, and Lloyd Burgess]

High Resolution Hard Copy from a DECwriter

p.206 Base 2 Printer

[author Walter Jeffries]

p.262 Text Editing with Compuview's VEDIT

[author H. Bradford Thompson]

p.316 Four Implementations of Pascal

[author Thomas H. Woteki and Paul A. Sand]

p.358 Microsoft's BASIC Compiler for the TRS-80

[author Mahlon G. Kelly]

p.372 LDOS-Disk Operating System for the TRS-80

[author Tim Daneliuk]

p.384 COBOL for the TRS-80 Models I/III

[author Rowland Archer Jr.]

p.414 John Bell Engineering's Apple II Parallel Interface Board

[author Ned W. Rhodes]


p.6 Editorial: The Microprocessor's Tenth Birthday

p.14 Letters

p.162, 300, 310, 473 Programming Ouickies: BASIC Formatted Printing; An Underline Filter for Matrix Printers; A Shape-Drawing Program for Diablo Printers; Finding Words That Sound Alike, The Soundex Algorithm

p.166, 256, 272 System Notes: Epson MX-BO Print-Control Program for the Apple II; Add a Full-sized Keyboard to Sinclair's ZXBO; Add a Cassette Interface to Your VIC-20

p.240 Product Description: Tele-VIC. Commodore Breaks the $100 Price Barrier for Modems

p.432 Books Received

p.434, 441 BYTE's Bugs


p.440 Clubs and Newsletters

p.441 Software Received

p.442 Ask BYTE

p.448 Event Oueue

p.454 BYTE's Bits

p.475 What's New?

p.526 Unclassified Ads

p.526 BOMB. BOMB Results

p.527 Reader Service

In This Issue

Hard copy was once considered a luxury by computer hobbyists, but now the ability to record program listings and text on paper is seen as almost a necessity. And though you're not likely to find a printer like the one Robert Tinney pictured on this month's cover, you're sure to find one from the many available that will fit your needs. For a rundown on what's around, see Curtis Feigel's printer directory. For a look at a new approach to printers, see Ed Umlor's review of the Prism Printer. We've also included a report on custom and standardized forms: where to get them and how to use them. And we have an article on programming your computer to fill in forms.

The Atari Tutorial continues with Part 7: Sound; William Barden Jr. discusses building a half-year clock for the Color Computer in the fourth article in his series on Radio Shack computers; in Part 2 of the "Input/Output Primer" Steve Leibson discusses interrupts and direct memory access; and Steve Ciarcia writes about using voiceprints to analyze speech. Don't miss our quarterly games feature, "BYTE's Arcade," plus our regular items and reviews.

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Vol.7 n°4 april 1982


p.32 The Generic Word Processor, A Word-Processing System for All Your Needs

[author Philip Schrodt]

You'll be amazed by this product's versatility.

p.40 Use Infrared Communication for Remote Control

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Texas Instruments' SN76832AN Infrared Remote-Control Receiver simplifies the tough job of receiving modulated infrared light.

p.50 How to Use Color Displays Effectively , A Look at the Elements of Color Vision and Their Implications for Programmers

[author John Durrett and Judi Trezona]

Color is becoming an affordable option for personal computers, but like any new tool, it has special limitations and requirements.

p.56 A Human-Factors Case Study Based on the IBM Personal Computer

[author Robert G. Cooper Jr., Paul Thain Marston, John Durrett, and Theron Stimmel]

Members of a human-factors evaluation team put the Personal Computer to the test.

p.108 A Human-Factors Style Guide for Program Design

[author Henry Simpson]

Design considerations that make programs userfriendly.

p.134 The Atari Tutorial , Part 8 : Generating Sound with Software

[author Bob Fraser]

The sound capabilities of the Atari 400 and 800 are influenced by the software technique used.

p.158 A Po(r)tpourri of Ideas, Fifth In a Series

[author William Barden Jr.]

Three inexpensive hardware and software projects for a tone generator, a telephone dialer, and an RS-232C output channel.

p.186 The Input/Output Primer, Part 3 : The Parallel and HPIB (IEEE-488) Interfaces

[author Steve Leibson]

An introduction to two common interfaces between computers and other devices.

p.212 User's Column: The Osborne 1, Zeke's New Friends, and Spelling Revisited

[author Jerry Pournelle]

A seasoned computer user takes a look at new products and updates.

p.242 Designing the Star User Interface

[author Dr. David Canfield Smith, Charles Irby, Ralph Kimball, Bill Verplank, and Eric Harslem]

The Star User Interface adheres rigorously to a small set of principles designed to make the system seem friendly by simplifying the human-machine interface.

p.284 Designing a Text Editor? The User Comes First

[author Steven Jong]

A system's power is measured in ease of use.

p.302 Managing Words: What Capabilities Should You Have with a Text Editor?

[author Craig A. Finseth]

The ideal text editor is defined drawing on the experience of many users.

p.322 A Disk Operating System for FORTH, An In-depth Look at How a DOS Operates

[author Peter Reece]

Develop a DOS for the FORTH language and gain an understanding on how all DOSes operate.

p.380 MOD III: TRS-80 Model III Features for Your Model I

[author Joe W. Rocke]

Add video line print, selectable cursor, and automatic key repeat to your TRS-80 Model I.

p.398 Binary-Coded Text, A Text-Compression Method

[author Dr. Richard Tropper]

You can trim text size by 40 percent by encoding common character strings.

p.439 Career Opportunities in Computing

[author Jacqueline Johnston]

Hobby-level interest in computers can lead to a career in the computer industry.

p.447 Converting Apple DOS and Pascal Text Files

[author John B. Matthews]

Now you can exchange information between DOS 3.3 and Pascal Operating Systems.

p.464 A Simple Multiprocessor implementation

[author John Harrington]

A simple connection can be the start of a multiprocessing, multitasking system.

p.472 An introduction to NSC Tiny BASIC, The Language of the INS8073

[author Jim Handy]

National Semiconductor's unique version of Tiny BASIC combines the elegance and efficiency of assembly language with the convenience of a high-level language.


p.76 The Hewlett-Packard Interface Loop-HPIL

[author Robert Katz]

p.96 Strawberry Tree's Dual Thermometer Card for the Apple

[author Dr. William Murray]

p.312 Two Word Processors for North Star

[author Edgar F. Coudal]

p.371 Selector IV by Micro-Ap, An Information-Management Program

[author Jack L. Abbott]


p.6 Editorial: A Revolution in Your Pocket

p.20 Letters

p.102, 155, 240 Book Reviews: Software Psychology: Human Factors in Computer and Information Systems; The Mind's I: Handbook of Digital IC Applications

p.104 Product Description: The Epson HX-20, The First Byte-sized Computer

p.362 Technical Forum: MicroShakespeare


p.418 BYTE's Bits

p.419 What's New?

p.429 Ask BYTE

p.432, 436 Programming Quickies: A BASIC Program for Home Cryptography; Base Conversion on the TRS-80 Pocket Computer

p.435 Software Received

p.482 System Notes: Easy-Entry Program for Radio Shack's Color Computer

p.489 Clubs and Newsletters

p.490 Books Received

p.491 Event Queue

p.542 Unclassified Ads

p.542 BOMB. BOMB Results

p.544 Reader Service

In This Issue

As computer technology continues to make inroads into our lives, the man/machine interface assumes greater importance in the total system design. Human-factors engineering, our theme this month, is the discipline concerned with the need for friendly computers. Our cover, photographed by Paul Avis, features a new, user-friendly product, the IXO Telecomputing System. For a detailed description of this hand-held terminal see Chris Morgan's editorial.

To help you make your systems user-friendly, we present "A Human-Factors Style Guide for Program Design" by Henry Simpson and "Designing the Star User Interface" by Dr. David Canfield Smith, Charles Irby, Ralph Kimball, Bill Verplank and Eric Harslem. In "A Human-Factors Case Study Based on the IBM Personal Computer," Robert G. Cooper Jr., Paul Thain Marston, John Durrett, and Theron Stimmel discuss the Personal Computer from a human-factors perspective. Steve Ciarcia demonstrates how to use infrared systems, William Barden Jr. presents a collection of projects for the TRS-80 Color Computer, Gregg Williams treats us to a sneak preview of Epson's new portable computer, and Bob Katz reviews the Hewlett-Packard Interface Loop.

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Vol.7 n°5 may 1982


p.34 Everyone Can Know the Real Time

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Technological advances have made real-time clocks simple and inexpensive.

p.60 Six Personal Computers from Japan

[author Christopher P. Kocher and Michael Keith]

A comparative review of the BMC if800, Canon CX-1. Hitachi MB-6890, NEC PC-8001A, Fujitsu FM-8. and Systems Formulate Corporation Bubcom80.

p.106 Japan Update

[author Mark Haas]

The semiannual Consumer Electronics Show is on its way to becoming a showcase for new computer products.

p.114 The Machines Behind the Machines

[author Phil Lemmons]

Several Japanese companies, both large and small, have their eyes on the American market.

p.118 The Japanese Manufacturers-How Successful Will They Be?

[author Tod Zipnick]

How they fare depends largely on their ability to meet the needs of the American marketplace.

p.140 Japan Maps Computer Domination

[author Tom Manuel]

Ten-year R&D effort aims to leapfrog U.S. technology.

p.148 The Atari Tutorial, Part 9: Even More Colors

[author Kathleen Pitta and Lane Winner]

Television artifacts and the new GTIA chip allow even more colors to be displayed on Atari computers.

p.162 Ports of Entry and Soft Breezes for the Color Computer and Model III

[author William Barden Jr.]

A $10 anemometer and other remote-sensing projects using the cassette interface.

p.202 The Input/Output Primer, Part 4: The BCD and Serial Interfaces

[author Steve Leibson]

A look at one of the least understood interfaces - the RS-232C - and one of the first instrument interfaces.

p.226 The User's Column: Supercalc, Spelling Programs, BASIC Compliers, and Home-Grown Accounting

[author Jerry Pournelle]

A critical computer user surveys new programs, including one of his own.

p.274 More Maze Building

[author Thomas Edward Neldner]

A Pascal program to generate mazes efficiently on a printer.

p.318 TRS-80 BASIC Program Hang-ups: The Reasons and Some Solutions

[author Glenn Tesler]

Understand and eliminate those mysterious crashes on your TRS-80 Model I.

p.334 Anatomy and Development of a Batch-Processing System

[author Gene Walters]

A software system that lets your computer run a series of programs without your intervention.

p.426 CHEDIT: A Graphics-character Editor

[author Jerry N. Sweet]

Define your own character set for Apple Pascal.

p.446 Give Your Apple a Voice: A Speech-Development System Using the Radio Shack Speech Synthesizer

[author John Blankenship]

How to make your Apple II talk.

p.465 Programming PERT In BASIC

[author Steven Zimmerman and Leo M. Conrad]

A method for planning complex activities where no precedents exist.

p.479 CP/M, Your Time Has Come: A Real-Time Clock for the Most Popular Microcomputer Operating System

[author J. L. Calaway and B. Hill]

All the hardware and software you need to get time-of-day printouts whenever you like.


p.224 Alien Typhoon

[author Walt Latocha]

p.246 PL/1 for Microcomputers

[author John A. Lehman]

p.252 Apple II 80-Column Video Boards, Five Popular Units

[author John E. Howland]

p.266 More Apple 80-Column Boards

[author Gregg Williams]

p.286 Colne Robotics Armdroid, The Small-Systems Robot

[author Steven W. Leininger]

p.296 Super FORTH Isn't

[author Gregg Williams]


p.6 Editorial: Japan and the "64K" Question

p.14 Letters

p.20, 307 BYTE's Bits

p.22 BYTE Comment: Copyrights. Computers. and the Betamax Case

p.300, 302, 304 Book Reviews: Fifty BASIC Exercises; Programmer's Guide to the 1802; TRS-80 Color Computer Technical Reference Manual

p.300 BYTE's Bugs

p.308 Programming Quickies: Structured Strings in BASIC


p.398 Ask BYTE

p.408 Event Queue

p.457 Technical Forum: Hierarchical Interrupts

p.460 Books Received

p.462 Clubs and Newsletters

p.463 Software Received

p.494 What's New?

p.542 BOMB. BOMB Results

p.542 Unclassified Ads

p.543 Reader Service

In This Issue

The Japanese entered the American personal computer market in earnest this year, and as one might expect, their products come standard with a host of "extras" at a price competitive with current American designs. This month we look closely at several Japanese perrsonal computers-some that are already on the market, some that are on the horizon, and some that may never be sold in this country. Six machines, from Hitachi, BMC (Oki), Fujitsu, Canon, Systems Formulate, and NEC, are featured on the cover (photographed by Paul Avis; Pauline Elkin, stylist). For reviews of these computers see "Six Personal Computers from Japan" by Christopher P. Kocher and Michael Keith. Phil Lemmons discusses the companies responsible for these computers in "The Machines Behind the Machines." For a brief introduction to three new Japanese computers that were shown at the recent Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas see "Japan Update" by Mark Haas. Steve Ciarcia tells you how you can build a real-time clock simply and inexpensively. Steve Leibson continues the Input/Output Primer with Part 4, in which he describes BCD and serial interfaces. Part 9 of the Atari Tutorial is on colors, and William Barden Jr. talks about ports of entry for the Color Computer and Model III.

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Vol.7 n°6 june 1982


p.48 The Videodisc Interfacing Primer

[author Rod Daynes]

Learn how to develop interactive videodisc programs.

p.56 Interactive Videodisc Design and Production

Wicat Systems presents a systematic approach to the design, development. and production of an interactive videodisc system.

p.60 Build an Interactive-Videodisc Controller

[author Steve Ciarcia]

You can use your personal computer to control a Pioneer VP-1000 laser-optical videodisc player through its remote-control circuitry.

p.78 Videodiscs In Education, Integrating the Computer and Communication Technologies

[author Isaac I. Bejar]

Educators are discovering ways to use videodiscs as an aid to learning.

p.108 Interactive Training In Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

[author David Hon]

Computer and videodisc technologies are combined to provide instruction in lifesaving techniques.

p.142 Videodiscs and Optical Data Storage

[author Dick Moberg and Ira M. Laefsky]

We may soon be measuring mass storage in gigabytes.

p.182 On the Way to Standard BASIC

[author Thomas E. Kurtz]

A survey of what's in the proposed ANSI standard and why it's there.

p.242 The Input/Output Primer, Part 5: Character Codes

[author Steve Leibson]

Character codes turn computer data into messages that people can understand.

p.260 A General-Purpose I/O Board for the Color Computer

[author William Barden Jr.]

You can build this interface for less than $25 and plug it into the ROM cartridge slot.

p.286 User's Column: Terminal Madness, The Word, Grammatik, and Then Some

[author Jerry Pournelle]

The critic reviews some new computer terminals, word-processing software, compilers, and M-drive.

p.302 The Atari Tutorial, Part 10: Human Engineering

[author Chris Crawford]

The interaction between the computer and the person using it is the most important and the most often neglected aspect of commercial software.

p.321 Upward Migration, Part 1: Translators

[author Roger Taylor and Phil Lemmons]

Using translation programs to move CP/M-80 programs to CP/M and MS-DOS.

p.410 TAFT: Terminal Apple with File Transfer

[author Tom Gabriele]

Low-cost telecommunication capability for the Apple II.

p.452 Maintenance Alternatives for Personal Computers

[author Lewis A , Whitaker]

Repair service options to consider before you buy a computer and preventive maintenance steps to perform once you've made the purchase.

p.468 Omnl Aviation Navigation System

[author Richard Campbell]

Simulate aircraft instrument navigation using simple trigonometry.


p.162 BYTE's Arcade: Armored Patrol (Pete Callamaras)

[author Silas Pike]

p.170 The Eliminator: Mayhem in Space, TRS-80 Style

p.176 Galactic Chase

[author Stan Wszola]

p.220 App-L-ISP

[author Jeff Bonar and Steve Levitan]

p.235 Tawala's Last Redoubt

[author Hartley G. Lesser]

p.348 The Osborne I

[author Mark Dahmke]

p.364 Applescope Stores Dual Traces

[author Gregory MacNicol]

p.376 NEWDOS/80 Version 2.0

[author Mahlon G. Kelly]

p.488 Micro-Decision Support System/Finance (DSS/F)

[author Robert Moskowitz]


p.6 Editorial: West Coast Computer Faire Report

p.26 Letters

p.232, 493 Technical Forum: Find That Disk; Conditionals in LISP

p.237, 497 Programming Ouickies: A Word-Counting Utility for Writers; Listing the Disk Directory in CP/M-based Pascal

p.402 Book Review: Beneath the Apple DOS

p.404, 460 System Notes: Adapting "Harvesting the Sun's Energy" for the Commodore PET; Text-Handling Routines in Extended BASIC

p.434 Ask BYTE


p.479 Clubs and Newsletters

p.480, 510 Books Received

p.480 BYTE's Bugs

p.482 Event Oueue

p.487 Software Received

p.502 What's New?

p.558 Unclassified Ads

p.558 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.559 Reader Service

In This Issue

Imagine carrying around the entire Encyclopaedia Britannica in your shirt pocket with room left over for every issue ever published of The New York Times and then some. Videodiscs and optical data storage technology have the potential to make this a reality. They also promise to provide a medium for an effective delivery of information hitherto impossible. Several articles this month illustrate the possibilities. Dick Moberg and Ira M. Laefsky describe one use for videodiscs in "Videodiscs and Optical Data Storage." Rod Daynes presents a primer on the video aspects of videodisc production in "The Videodisc Interfacing Primer." In "Videodiscs in Education" Isaac I. Bejar discusses ways in which videodisc technology might affect teaching methods. David Hon describes teaching lifesaving techniques with the aid of videodiscs and computers in "Interactive Training in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation." And Steve Ciarcia's project is how to "Build an Interactive-Videodisc Controller." Thomas E. Kurtz, co-author of the original Dartmouth BASIC, surveys what's in the proposed ANSI standard and why it's there. Roger Taylor and Phil Lemmons explain what's really involved in adapting 8-bit software to a 16-bit environment in "Upward Migration, Part 1: Translators." Steve Leibson's "The Input/Output Primer" continues with "Part 5: Character Codes." Of course, we have Jerry Pournelle, William Barden Jr., and all our other regular features.

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Vol.7 n°7 july 1982


p.34 The Input/Output Primer, Part 6 : Interrupts, Buffers, Grounds, and Signal Degradation

[author Steve Leibson]

The conclusion of a six-part series that covers fundamental issues in computer interfacing.

p.50 Computers, Fiction, and Poetry

[author Kevin McKean]

Computer-generated stories and poems shed some light on the complex process known as creativity.

p.60 Add Programmable Sound Effects to Your Computer

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Silicon replaces gunpowder for producing sound effects.

p.76 Breaking the Jargon Barrier: Designing Programs for Humanists

[author Ned Heite and Lou Heite]

Two archaeologists design practical programs in the language their colleagues understand.

p.108 Microcomputers in the Study of Politics, Predicting Wars with the Richardson Arms-Race Model

[author Philip A. Schrodt]

A Pascal program helps predict the outcome of arms races and other two-party conflicts.

p.138 Software Tools for Writers

[author Wayne Holder]

Your computer can take the tedium out of the process of writing and put new life into the final product.

p.166 The Historian and the Microcomputer, A Student of the Past Meets the Machine of the Future

[author Don Karl Rowney]

The microcomputer promises to change the nature of historical research methods and the teaching of history.

p.178 Simulating Neighborhood Segregation

[author Edwin Dethlefsen and Carlisle Moody]

A BASIC program gives surprising insights into some of the forces that hamper integration.

p.208 Measuring Attitudes with a PET , A BASIC Program That Finds Out How People Feel

[author David R. Heise]

This BASIC program gives microcomputer owners sophisticated attitudemeasurement tools once the domain of politicians and big corporations.

p.250 Microcomputers in Cultural Anthropology, APL Programs for Qualitative Analysis

[author Oswald Werner]

Microcomputers on-site help the study of Navajo and other cultures.

p.290 User's Column: Ada, MINCE, CP/M Utilities, Overpriced Documentation , and Analiza II

[author Jerry Pournelle]

An inveterate user of microcomputers expresses firm opinions on hardware, software, and other subjects.

p.330 Upward Migration, Part 2 : A Comparison of CP/M-86 and MS-DOS

[author Roger Taylor and Phil Lemmons]

An end user and a system programmer examine the two operating systems vying for dominance in the 16-bit arena.

p.360 Using the Model I/III RS-232C Port

[author William Barden Jr.]

Some mysteries of the TRS-80 Model I and III RS-232C interface are solved and instructions are given for building a data communications plugboard.

p.378 Programming the Critical-Path Method in BASIC

[author Steven Zimmerman and Leo M. Conrad]

This program helps managers assess the productivity trade-offs of time and money.

p.392 Computers for Humanity

[author Jerry Pournelle]

A firsthand report on the newest products introduced at the Seventh West Coast Computer Faire.


p.54 Scion Color System

[author Mark Dahmke]

p.284 Mediamix's ETI2

[author Robert Welborn]

p.312 Color Computer Disk System

[author Colin Stearman]

p.408 It All Depends on Your Viewpoint

[author Allen D. Moore]

p.412 Database Management with Ashton-Tate's dBASE II

[author Jack L. Abbott]


p.6 Editorial: The Briefcase Computer Market Heats Up

p.14 Letters

p.32 BYTE's Bugs

p.402 Book Review: Computer Power and Human Reason

p.406 Technical Forum: INS8070 Series Instruction Set Summary

p.417 Clubs and Newsletters

p.417, 432, 440 BYTE's Bits

p.418 Software Received

p.420 Ask BYTE

p.422 Event Queue


p.431 Books Received

p.434 Desk-Top Wonders. Draw Poker for the TI-59

p.441, 452 Programming Quickies: Generate Huffman Codes; Idiot-proof Input in Pascal

p.442, 448 System Notes. Tuning Up the 1802; Double Your TRS-80's Graphics Resolution

p.454 What's New?

p.509 Unclassified Ads

p.510 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.511 Reader Service

In this Issue

The availability of small, powerful, and inexpensive computers has brought the power of the computer out of its traditional domain-science, mathematics, engineering, and business-data processing-and into the hands of historians, anthropologists, artists, musicians, political scientists, and others involved in the humanities, arts, and social sciences. Philip Schrodt (of "The Generic Word Processor" fame) presents a program to predict wars in his article "Microcomputers in the Study of Politics." Kevin McKean shows how computers can spin tall yarns in "Computers, Fiction, and Poetry,"and Wayne Holder helps you spin them yourself in "Software Tools for Writers." Ned and Lou Heite present their views on what is needed to advance the use of computers in the humanities in "Breaking the Jargon Barrier: Designing Programs for Humanists." We also have a computer simulation of neighborhood segregation, a program for measuring people's attitudes, and more. Roger Taylor and Phil Lemmons conclude their two-part article "Upward Migration" with an in-depth comparison of CPIM-86 and MS-DOS, and their findings may surprise you. Jerry Pournelle gives his impressions of the West Coast Computer Faire in "Computers for Humanity," Steve Ciarcia shows you how to create sound effects with your computer, and William Barden Jr. illustrates how to use the RS-232C port on TRS-80 Models I and III. A generous sprinkling of product reviews and regular features round out our July issue.

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Vol.7 n°8 august 1982


p.57 High-Resolution Sprite-Oriented Color Graphics

[author Steve Ciarcia]

You don't need Logo to use sprites for animation with the illusion of depth.

p.88 A Beginner's Guide to Logo

[author Harold Abelson]

Although Logo is used as a language for introducing computers to children, it is not just for kids.

p.116 Logo in the Schools

[author Daniel Watt]

Putting computers in the classroom has led to some unexpected results.

p.138 Designing Computer-Based Microworlds

[author R. W. Lawler]

Well-written Logo procedures stimulate children's desire to learn by making complex ideas understandable and intrinsically interesting.

p.163 Why Logo?

[author Brian Harvey]

Logo is designed to encourage development of problem-solving skills.

p.196 Introducing Logo to Children

[author Cynthia Solomon]

Teaching Logo requires an awareness of different learning styles.

p.210 Logo - A Cultural Glossary

[author E. Paul Goldenberg]

Common Logo terms are defined and their interrelationships are highlighted.

p.230 Logo for the Apple II, the TI-99/4A, and the TRS-80 Color Computer

[author Gregg Williams]

Each version of Logo is best suited for a particular audience.

p.291 A General-Purpose I/O Board for the TRS-80 Models I and III

[author William Barden Jr.]

The system bus is described, and plans are presented for an interface board with 24 lines of discrete input/output.

p.323 The Logo Journal, News and Views of the Logo Community - A collection of articles

p.324 Learning Physics from a Dynaturtle

[author Andrea A. diSessa and Barbara Y. White]

p.325 Logo Music

[author Jeanne Bamberger]

p.328 Leading Fish to Water

[author Dr. William Higginson]

p.329 Logo Project PROKOP

[author Heinz-Dieter Boecker and Gerhard Fischer]

p.330 The Group of the Turtle

[author Dr. Uri Leron]

p.331 The Lamplighter Project

[author Henry Gorman Jr.]

p.332 Logo Research at Bank Street College

[author Jan Jewson and Roy D. Pea]

p.333 Young People's Logo Association

[author James H. Muller]

p.334 and Logo Update

[author Phil Lemmons]

p.342 User's Column: Semidisk, Software Tools, the BDOS Blues, Power, and LISPs

[author Jerry Pournelle]

A veteran computer user voices his opinions, bashed and unabashed.


p.38 Program Generators

[author George Stewart]

p.366 The Commodore 8032 Business System

[author Harold Dickerman]

p.398 The Heath/Zenith Model 47 Dual Floppy-Disk Drive

[author Christopher O. Kern]

p.408 Assisted Instructional Development System

[author George Wolfe]


p.6 Editorial: Keeping Our Technological Edge

p.20 Letters

p.84 BYTE Game Contest Winners and Rules for Contest #2

p.380 Technical Forum: Let the MC68701 Program itself

p.416 Book Review: Software Design: Methods and Techniques

p.418 Ask BYTE

p.422 Software Received

p.426 BYTE's Bits

p.428 Clubs and Newsletters

p.430 Books Received

p.430 BYTE's Bugs

p.432 Event Queue

p.443 System Notes: Using the LOOKUP Function in Visicalc


p.451 What's New?

p.509 Unclassified Ads

p.509 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.511 Reader Service

In This Issue

Welcome to our annual language issue. This year we present Logo, the microcomputer language perhaps best known for its turtle graphics. Mathematically minded readers may recognize the cover illustration by Robert Tinney as BYTE's own version (influenced slightly by M.C. Escher) of the classic four-bug puzzle. In this puzzle, for which a Logo program is shown on the cover, four bugs are placed at each corner of a square; each bug attempts to walk toward the bug to its immediate right. In the process they trace Archimedean spirals. The object is to calculate the length of the spirals. The answer: each is equal to the length of one side of the original square. But Logo is more than turtles, and our articles will tell you what it's all about.

To get you started, Harold Abelson presents "A Beginner s Guide to Logo," Brian Harvey answers the question "Why Logo?," and E. Paul Goldenberg fills you in on the jargon with "Logo-A Cultural Glossary." Daniel Watt discusses "Logo in the Schools," and Cynthia Solomon describes "Introducing Logo to Children." R. W. Lawler explains one of the unique abilities of Logo in "Designing Computer-Based Microworlds."

Steve Ciarcia shows you how to build a graphics board for your Apple II computer using the Texas Instruments TM59918A, and William Barden Jr. designs "A General-Purpose I/O Board for the TRS-80 Models I and III." Of course, we have Jerry Pournelle's User's Column and more.

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Vol.7 n°9 september 1982


p.24 Quinti-Maze

[author Robert Tsuk]

A three-dimensional game that may redefine for you the meaning of "lost." It placed eighth in the BYTE Game Contest.

p.34 Three Dee Tee

[author John Stuart]

Strategy is the key word in this game designed for the TRS-80 Color Computer. It's the seventh-place winner in the BYTE Game Contest.

p.54 The Epson QX-10/Valdocs System

[author Gregg Williams]

This new machine from Epson combines a word processor, an appointment book, an electronic mail network, and more in one package-all for less than $3000.

p.58 NCC Report

[author Chris Morgan]

New products from the United States and Japan put the spotlight on microcomputers at the National Computer Conference.

p.62 The Hanover Fair

[author Robert E. Ramsdell]

The annual exposition is a showcase for the latest microcomputers and dataprocessing and office equipment.

p.64 Build the Microvox Text-to-Speech Synthesizer

[author Steve Ciarcia]

The 6502 microprocessor in this intelligent peripheral device translates plain English text into phonemes to control a Votrax SC-01A .

p.136 Computers Can Play a Dual Role for Disabled Individuals

[author Gregg Vanderheiden]

Microcomputers must be made to do more than help disabled individuals in specialized ways; they must be adapted to give the disabled access to standard software.

p.166 A New Horizon for Nonvocal Communication Devices

[author Patrick Demasco and Richard Foulds]

The Panasonic Hand-Held Computer can be used as a personal, portable speech prosthesis.

p.186 Minspeak

[author Bruce Baker]

A picture can truly be worth a thousand words for people using this speech synthesizer.

p.204 The FDA Regulation of Computerized Medical Devices

[author Joseph Jorgens III, Carl W. Bruch, and Frank Houston]

What you need to know before your creation hits the market.

p.218 Talking Terminals

[author David Stoffel]

New devices open the world of computing to people with visual impairments.

p.250 Braille Writing In Pascal

[author Alfred Fant Jr.]

A Pascal program, a strip of cellophane tape, and a rubber glove combine to make a line printer for braille text.

p.276 Adaptive-Firmware Card for the Apple II

[author Paul Schwejda and Gregg Vanderheiden]

Physically disabled individuals can control standard programs without permanent modifications to the computer.

p.318 User's Column: Letters, Pascal, CB/80, and Cardfile

[author Jerry Pournelle]

One man's opinion on a variety of subjects of interest to computer users.

p.342 Logo: An Approach to Educating Disabled Children

[author Sylvia Weir, Susan Jo Russell, and Jose A. Valente]

Creating action-oriented learning environments and putting pupils in charge of their own learning greatly benefits students with severe educational disabilities.

p.398 Model III A to D Revisited

[author William Barden Jr.]

Build this simple and inexpensive analog-to-digital converter.

p.420 The Case of the Purloined Object Code: Can It Be Solved? Part 1: The Problems

[author Richard H. Stern]

A specialist in software and the legal aspects of high technology explains why new laws are necessary.

p.440 A Comparison of Five Compilers for Apple BASIC

[author Joseph H. Taylor and Jeffrey S. Taylor]

Speed isn't the only factor to assess when choosing a compiler.

p.466 Digital Troubleshooting with Signature Analysis

[author Steven A. Piubeni]

A look inside Hewlett-Packard's HP-5004A.

p.476 Program Your Own Text Editor, Part 1: Avoid Complex Commands Using Instant Updating

[author Richard Fobes]

A commonly used program should be easy to work with.

p.513 A Weaving Simulator

[author Paul W. Heiser]

The final appearance of a loom pattern can be predicted with a microcomputer and a printer.

p.520 Turn Your Apple II Into a Storage Oscilloscope

[author Larry Korba]

Low-repetition transient pulses can be easy to capture.


p.92 The Apple III and Its New Profile

[author Robin Moore]

p.231 The Cognivox VI0-1003 : Voice recognition and output for the Apple II

[author Dr. William Murray]

p.240 The Abilityphone

[author William L. Rush]

p.362 BYTE's Arcade: Swashbuckler

[author Scott Spangenberg]

p.370 Zero Gravity Pinball

[author Mark Friedman]

p.375 Beer Run

[author Arthur Little]

p.383 Advanced Star Raider Tactics and Strategies

[author C. Donald Harris Jr.]

p.531 Pickles & Trout CP/M for the TRS-80 Model II

[author Hal Smith]

p.537 TRS-80 Disk Editor/Assemblers

[author T. A. Daneliuk]


p.6 Editorial: Let There Be Talking People Too

p.10 Letters

p.270 Education Forum: Computers and the Special Education Classroom


p.494 Software Received

p.497 Clubs and Newsletters

p.498 Books Received

p.499 Ask BYTE

p.501 BYTE's Bit

p.502 Event Queue

p.540 Desk-Top Wonder: Getting the Most from Your TI Programmer

p.543 What's New?

p.605 Unclassified Ads

p.606 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.607 Reader Service

In This Issue

BYTE marks its seventh anniversary with the theme Computers and the Disabled, graphically illustrated on the cover by Robert Tinney. Gregg Vanderheiden discusses how "Computers Can Play a Dual Role for the Disabled," and with coauthor Paul Schwejda demonstrates how to make an "Adaptive Firmware Card for the Apple II." David Stoffel reviews talking terminals for the blind, and William L. Rush evaluates the Abilityphone, a device for nonvocal communication. Patrick Demasco and Richard Foulds show how the Panasonic Hand-Held Computer can be used as a communication device in "A New Horizon for Nonvocal Communication Devices." Steve Ciarcia brings you his latest speech-synthesis system in "Build the Microvox Text-to-Speech Synthesizer: Part 1 - The Hardware," and Dr. William Murray reviews The Cognivox VI-1003, a speech-recognition system. Bruce Baker discusses his highly original Minspeak associative memory system for portable speech synthesis, and Alfred Fant Jr. shows you how to use a line printer to produce braille. In case you're thinking of marketing your own computerized aid, see our overview of the FDA's regulations concerning medical devices. In addition to our regular articles and reviews, we have BYTE's Arcade, and we start the countdown on our game contest winners.

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Vol.7 n°10 october 1982


p.29 Beyond the Peaks of Visicalc

[author Jack Bishop]

Three new software packages help fiscal planners study large, complex financial models.

p.40 Build the Microvox Text-to-Speech Synthesizer, Part 2 : Software

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Rules for conversion of plain English text to phonemes govern the operation of this SC-01A-based device.

p.68 What Makes Business Programming Hard?

[author James L. Woodward]

A banker/programmer describes some of the pitfalls in writing software that handles "routine" business tasks.

p.80 Adapting microcomputers to Wall Street

[author Robert Franz]

Microcomputers are fast becoming crucial tools for financial managers.

p.96 Putting Real-World Interfaces to Work, Part 1 : Monitoring Physical Quantities with the TRS-80

[author William Barden Jr.]

A summary of techniques for interfacing the TRS-80 to the "realworld" and a look at some of the transducers that provide practical applications.

p.128 The State of Industrial Robotics

[author J. Michael Callahan]

Industrial robots are playing an increasingly important role in manufacturing. Here we look at some of the fundamentals of robot design and describe some robot subsystems.

p.146 Marketplace

[author Robert Dickinson]

You can become an entrepreneur and pit your company against the competition in this two-player telecomputing game for the TRS-80 Model III. It's the sixth-place winner in the BYTE Game Contest.

p.176 Ringquest

[author Gordon Mills]

You'll need to muster up more than the usual amount of game strategy for this adventure that sometimes penalizes the aggressive player. It captured fifth place in the BYTE Game Contest.

p.210 The Case of the Purloined Object Code: Can It Be Solved? Part 2: Approaches to Software Protection

[author Richard H. Stern]

An expert on software-protection law tackles the tough issues.

p.254 User's Column : A BASIC and Pascal Benchmark, Elegance, Apologies, and FORTH

[author Jerry Pournelle]

A microcomputer user assesses the speed and convenience of some languages currently available.

p.291 An introduction to the Human Applications Standard Computer Interface, Part 1: Theory and Principles

[author Chris Rutkowski]

Six years' effort has already gone into developing an interface design that promises to make computing power more accessible to the general consumer.

p.315 The Personal Computer as an Interface to a Corporate Management Information System

[author N. R. McBurney II]

Designing an intelligent terminal program for the Apple II Plus.

p.360 Software Arts' TK Solver

[author Gregg Williams]

Software Arts' new "toolkit" equation solver is like an electronic calculator for algebra.

p.380 Naming Your Software

[author Stephen A. Becker]

Registered trademarks provide the best protection for your software creations.

p.406 Program Your Own Text Editor , Part 2: Install the Video-Display-Oriented Text Editor on Your System

[author Richard Fobes]

A listing of the text editor's source code with numerous comments concludes this two-part article.


p.224 Radio Shack Compiler BASIC

[author Rowland Archer]

p.392 Wyse Technology's WY-100 Terminal

[author Mark Haas]

p.400 Edu-Ware's Statistics 3.0

[author Brownlee Elliott]

p.447 Systems Plus: FMS-80

[author Jack L. Abbot]


p.6 Editorial: Some Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

p.18 Letters

p.26, 386, 454, 468 BYTE's Bits

p.312 Programming Quickies: Generating Mohr's Circle

p.385, 390 Book Reviews: Personal Documentation for Professionals, Means and Methods; Visicalc: Home and Office Companion

p.390 BYTE's Bugs

p.451 Clubs and Newsletters

p.452 Ask BYTE


p.459 Event Queue

p.466 Books Received

p.467 Software Received

p.471 What's New?

p.525 Unclassified Ads

p.526 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.527 Reader Service

In This Issue

According to a survey conducted by the Eastern Management Group, of the 1,400,000 personal computers installed by the United States by the end of 1981, 64 percent were operating in businesses. However, even with 900,000 personal computers in U.S. business establishments, only 1 out of every 61 white-collar workers is equipped with his own machine. Obviously, the market for personal computers within the business world is just getting off the ground. But someday, as Robert Tinney's cover playfully illustrates, microcomputers will very likely become permanent fixtures on Wall Street. Robert Franz describes how one brokerage firm has made microcomputers work to its advantage, James L. Woodward, a Boston banker, discusses some pitfalls of business programming in "What Makes Business Programming Hard?" Jack Bishop reviews three popular financial-planning systems in "Beyond the Peaks of Visicalc." N. R. McBurney II describes "The Personal Computer as an interface to a Corporate Management Information System." Gregg Williams looks at Software Arts' new TK Solver, In "An Introduction to the Human Applications Standard Computer Interface" (the first of a two-part article), Chris Rutkowski discusses new directions in which the personal computer may be heading. Steve Ciarcia concludes his two-part article on the construction of the Microvox text-to-speech synthesizer, William Barden puts real-world interfaces to work, Jerry Pournelle discusses BASIC and Pascal benchmarks, and we continue the countdown on our Game Contest winners,

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Vol.7 n°11 november 1982


p.30 The Third NCGA and the Future of Computer Graphics

[author Alexander Pournelle]

An overview of the state of the art in computer graphics as gleaned from a day at the fair.

p.48 Tronic Imagery

[author Peter Sørensen]

A behind-the-scenes look at the development of the computer-generated graphics in Disney Studio's film Tron.

p.78 Build the Circuit Cellar MPX-16 Computer System, Part 1

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Any peripheral device designed to be installed in the IBM Personal Computer can be plugged into this 8088-based system.

p.118 Problem Solving with Logo

[author William Weinreb]

Find out how a complex design can be broken down into surprisingly simple components.

p.174 Build a Video Digitizer

[author Michael Keryan]

Capture any video image for processing by your computer.

p.194 Computer Animation with Color Registers

[author David Fox and Mitchell Waite]

The color registers on the Atari 400 and 800 give programmers amazing animation capabilities, even in BASIC

p.216 Victor Victorious: The Victor 9000 Computer

[author Phil Lemmons]

A detailed look at a third-generation microcomputer that really gets down to business.

p.256 An Interview with Chuck Peddle

[author Phil Lemmons]

The chief designer of the Victor 9000 discusses microcomputer design, marketing, and the industry's future.

p.272 JETSET

[author Eugene Szymanski]

You'll thrill to the highs and lows of this simulated flight game. It's the fourth-place winner in the BYTE Game Contest.

p.336 The Game of Rat and Dragon

[author Truck Smith]

You really put your game-playing skills to the test in this chase in which dragons pursue a rat that's after some cheese. As your skills improve the pace quickens. It captured third place in the BYTE Game Contest.

p.379 An Introduction to the Human Applications Standard Computer Interface, Part 2: Implementing the HASCI Concept

[author Chris Rutkowski]

Details of an easy-to-use, consumer-quality computer console.

p.386 A Short History of the Keyboard

[author Phil Lemmons]

The widespread use of keyboards as input and control devices for microcomputers has generated renewed interest in an old problem.

p.394 User's Column: Terminals, Keyboards, and How Software Piracy Will Bring Profits to Its Victims

[author Jerry Pournelle]

The columnist answers a few letters and passes on some interesting observations from readers.

p.416 Inexpensive Transducers for the TRS-80

[author William Barden Jr.]

A practical look at the devices that put real-world interfaces to work.

p.448 A Graphics Primer

[author Gregg Williams]

Microcomputers can create quite a variety of graphics.

p.474 Interactive 3-D Graphics for the Apple II

[author Andrew Pickholtz]

Understanding the theory of perspective helps you to represent three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional screen.

p.508 Microvec: The Other Type of Video Display

[author Billy Garrett]

Vector displays produce images far sharper than "high-resolution" raster types.


p.138 The Graphics Magician

[author Peter Callamaras]

p.148 Cambridge Development Lab's High Resolution Video Graphics System

[author James R. DeKock]

p.164 Executive Briefing System

[author Peter Callamaras]

p.324 Colonial Data Services' SB-80

[author Arthur Little]


p.6 Editorial: Deus ex Machina of the Technological Age

p.14 Letters

p.529 Software Received

p.532 Ask BYTE

p.534 Event Queue

p.539 Clubs and Newsletters


p.548 Books Received

p.553 What's New?

p.605 Unclassified Ads

p.606 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.607 Reader Service

In This Issue

This month we're proud to present the Circuit Cellar MPX-16 computer system, designed and developed by Steve Ciarcia. In this exclusive three-part article, Steve will discuss all the design aspects of his IBM-compatible computer based on the Intel 8088 microprocessor. Our cover photograph (© 1982 by Jonathan Goell) shows the MPX-16 as a single-board computer composed of the processor, the memory, parallel and serial interfaces, a disk controller, and expansion slots. We hope you'll enjoy Steve's most extensive technical project to date. Our theme this month is graphics, and we have some interesting features. "Tronic Imagery" is a behind-the-scenes look at the development of the computer-generated graphics in Disney Studio's epic film Tron. Gregg Williams provides an introduction to computer graphics in "A Graphics Primer," and Alexander Pournelle takes us on a tour of " The Third NCGA and the Future of Computer Graphics." In "Build a Video Digitizer" Michael Keryan shows you how to construct a video "frame grabber," and in "Microvec: The Other Type of Video Display" Billy Garrett describes how to construct an inexpensive vector graphics display. Andrew Pickholtz discusses "Interactive 3-D Graphics for the Apple II." And we have reviews of the Victor 9000, Cambridge Development Labs graphics board, The Graphics Magician, and the Executive Briefing System. Plus more Game Contest winners, the User's Column, and our regular features.

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Vol.7 n°12 december 1982


p.42 Build the Circuit Cellar MPX-16 Computer System, Part 2

[author Steve Ciarcia]

A continued description of an 8088-based system that shares its principles of operation with the IBM Personal Computer.

p.83 Game Plan 1982

A section devoted entirely to games and gaming begins here.

p.84 The Coinless Arcade - Rediscovered

[author Pamela Clark and Gregg Williams]

With so many games available for microcomputers and cartridge systems, you can play forever.

p.92 The Vectrex Arcade System

[author Pamela Clark]

A vector-display game system brings true arcade adventures into the home - all for less than $200.

p.94 Board to Death

Can you tell an Apple from a TRS-80 when they're stripped of their outer trappings? Find out by taking this quiz that tests your skill in recognizing printed-circuit boards.

p.96 Design Techniques and Ideals for Computer Games

[author Chris Crawford]

Atari's prized and prolific creator of games discusses some of the special techniques he uses.

p.112 Charge!

[author C. Anthony Ray]

A trajectory game that shoots electrons through stationary ions. It's the second-place winner in the BYTE Game Contest.

p.124 Cosmic Conquest

[author Alan Sartori-Angus]

The first-place winner in the BYTE Game Contest is a realtime space strategy game.

p.142 BYTE Game Grid:

p.142 Ricochet

[author Gregg Williams]

p.150 Action Games for the VIC-20

[author Russell Kavanagh]

p.160 Deadline

[author Chris Morgan]

p.162 Penetrator

[author Stan Wszola]

p.167 Character Editor for the Atari

[author Tim Kilby]

Explore the Atari's ANTIC 4 and 5 modes.

p.222 User's Column: A Slew of Languages, a Slap at Documentation, and a Curse at Keyboards

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Unaccustomed as he is to voicing his opinions, Jerry drops just a few hints.

p.260 The Soundchaser Computer Music Systems

[author Robert A. Moog]

Two new synthesizers make headway in the evolutionary process toward the ultimate computer music system.

p.278 A Brief Introduction to Electronic Music Synthesizers

[author Robert A. Moog]

Modern-day synthesizers are direct descendants of analog computers.

p.288 The 8051 One-Chip Microcomputer: A Most Powerful Microcontroller

[author Howard Boyet and Ron Katz]

Hardware-intensive applications can show off the power of hardware.

p.314 Problem Oriented Language, Part 1: A New Method of Input

[author Mark Finger]

Data entry can be shortened and simplified by using Problem Oriented Language.

p.372 Practical Dynamic-Memory System Design

[author Rob Belics]

A straightforward look at design with dynamic devices.

p.414 Test Your Memory Using the Barber-Pole Algorithm

[author H. R. Pinnick Jr.]

Useful diagnostic information is not hard to obtain, as an example coded for the 8080 processor shows.

p.486 A Versatile Low-Cost Microprocessor Controller Module

[author David L. Craig]

Add intelligence to your latest project at minimal expense.


p.206 Microshell and Unica: Unix-Style Enhancements for CP/M

[author Christopher Kern]

p.250 Autocontrol's AC-85: A CP/M System on One Board

[author joAnne Benedict]

p.392 Multidos: A New TRS-80 Disk Operating System

[author Rowland Archer]

p.404 Condor Series 20 DBMS

[author Jack L. Abbott]


p.6 Editorial: The Play's the Thing

p.14 Letters

p.38, 202 BYTE's Bits

p.182, 390 Product Description: Lotus Development Corporation's 1-2-3; The Lobo Max-80

p.202, 389 Book Reviews: PET/CBM BASIC; 8080/Z80 Assembly Language: Techniques for Improved Programming

p.389, 403 BYTE's Bugs

p.398, 448 System Notes: GRPRINT: An Apple Utility Program for Dot-Matrix Printers; A Little Apple SOS with Your Pascal


p.505 Clubs and Newsletters

p.506 Ask BYTE

p.508 Software Received

p.512 Books Received

p.514 Event Queue

p.518 Cumulative Index Update

p.532 What's New?

p.589 Unclassified Ad5

p.590 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.591 Reader Service

In This Issue

Video games are taking the country by storm, They provide thousands of youngsters and adults alike with hours of exciting play. Their attraction forms a complex web of challenge, high-speed action, and intrigue. Video games offer a temporary alternative to workaday problems and worries. And, as Robert Tinney's cover suggests, they transport you into another world. Swiftly moving out of the arcades and into the homes, video games for microcomputers have grown into a booming industry of their own, In keeping with this national game wave and the playful spirit of the holiday season, we have put together a section devoted exclusively to games (see page 83), Game Plan 1982 includes "The Coinless Arcade-Rediscovered" by Pamela Clark and Gregg Williams; reviews of four games in BYTE's new Game Grid; the first-and second-place Game Contest Winners, " Cosmic Conquest" by Alan Sartori-Angus and "Charge !" by C. Anthony Ray, respectively; an article by Chris Crawford of Atari on "Design Techniques and Ideals for Computer Games," a quiz called "Board to Death" that will test your skill in recognizing printed-circuit boards;, and more, We have our first annual update of the BYTE Cumulative Index, We present the second part of Steve Ciarcia's three-part article "Build the Circuit Cellar MPX-16 Computer System." Gregg Williams describes "Lotus Development Corporation's 1-2-3," And we have Jerry Pournelle's User's Column plus our regular features and reviews,

Dernière mise à jour de cette page le 14/06/2014.