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Vol.6 n°1 january 1981


p.18 An Introduction to Atari Graphics

[author Chris Crawford and Lane Winner]

Learning to use the Atari display list can help to unleash the full power of Atari's custom LSI video integrated Circuits.

p.34 The Panasonic and Quasar Hand-Held Computers: Beginning a New Generation of Consumer Computers

[author Gregg Williams and Rick Meyer]

This full-function computer fits in your hand and weighs 14 ounces.

p.48 Electromagnetic Interference

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Interfering electrical noise must be dealt with according to its mode of transmission.

p.72 The NEC PC-8001: A New Japanese Personal Computer

[author Michael Keith and C P Kocher]

This popular Japanese personal computer may soon be sold in the United States.

p.148 Generating Bar Code in the Hewlett-Packard Format

[author Thomas McNeal]

Bar code provides a cheap, easily reproduced, mass-storage medium that encourages the publication of software.

p.226 The Picture-Perfect Apple

[author Phil Roybal]

This driver software allows your printer to transcribe the high-resolution graphics of the Apple II personal computer.

p.238 Micrograph, Part 3: Software and Operation

[author E Grady Booch]

Part 3 concludes this series with a description of Micrographs powerful software and instruction-set usage.

p.318 Whose BASIC Does What?

[author Teri Li]

Knowing the differences between the six most popular BASICs is essential.


p.94 The Sinclair Research ZX80

[author John C McCallum]

p.118 The HP-41C: A Literate Calculator?

[author Brian P Hayes]

p.208 The Newest Sargon-2.5

[author John Martellaro]

p.216 The SwTPC 6809 Microcomputer System

[author Tom Harmon]


p.6 Editorial: Hand-Held Computers

p.10, 292, 314 BYTE's Bits

p.12 Letters

p.90 Technical Forum: SC/MP Instruction-Set Summary

p.104 Education Forum: Multi-Micro Learning Environments

p.142 Desk-Top Wonders

p.182 Systems Notes

p.188 Languages Forum: A Bug in BASIC


p.282 Ask BYTE

p.294 Software Received

p.296, 298 BYTE's Bugs

p.298 Books Received

p.300 Book Reviews

p.304 Event Queue

p.312 Clubs and Newsletters

p.328, 334 Programming Quickies

p.336 What's New?

p.382 Unclassified Ads

p.383 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.384 Reader Service

In This Issue

This month's cover photograph by Ed Crabtree highlights three examples of a new phenomenon in the personal computer field: the HHC (hand-held computer). Shown are (from top to bottom): the Panasonic HHC; the Quasar HHC; and the Radio Shack HHC. All three units are discussed in this issue. Other articles this month describe two other miniature computers: the Sinclair ZX80 and the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C.

Elsewhere in this issue, Steve Ciarcia describes electromagnetic interference; we describe some of the exciting capabilities of Atari graphics; and we review an intriguing new Japanese computer: the NEC 8001; plus a new regular section of hardware and software reviews.

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Vol.6 n°2 february 1981


p.36 An Extremely Low-Cost Computer Voice Response System

[author James C Anderson]

Infinite clipping produces acceptable computer speech.

p.44 A Computer-Controlled Tank

[author Steve Ciarcia]

A wireless remote-control link to a personal computer enhances Milton-Bradley's Big Trak.

p.68 A Beginner's Guide to Spectral Analysis, Part 1

[author Mark Zimmermann]

A nonmathematical treatment of Fourier transforms.

p.106 A Pascal Library Unit for the Micromodem II

[author Thomas H Woteki]

Pascal routines which allow the Apple to perform mass-transfer and processing of files via the Micromodem II

p.142 Dynamic Memory: Making an Intelligent Decision

[author Larry Malakoff]

Dynamic memory boards can have one-sixth the power and half the space of static types, but these advantages are useless if the board doesn't work.

p.152 Stacking Strings in FORTH

[author John Cassady]

A set of "words" for the FORTH vocabulary adds string.handling capabilities to the language.

164 Articulate Automata [author Kathryn Fons and Tim Gargagliano]

A look at the physiology of speech and at how the electronic equivalent of the human vocal tract (the voice synthesizer) is programmed.

p.220 Image Processing With a Printer

[author Clark A Calkins]

With this simple system a little hardware goes a long way in processing and printing images.

p.312 A/D and D/A Conversion - An Inexpensive Approach

[author Roger W Mikel]

This fast converter requires a minimum of parts and supplies 8 bits of resolution or a 5 V range.

p.318 Turn Your COSMAC VIP Into a Frequency Counter

[author Andrew Modla]

Display frequencies in the range of 1 to 11,004 Hz on your OSMAC computer.

p.326 A Heating and Cooling Management System

[author Tom Hall]

How to build a remote temperature sensor.

p.332 Modifying the SwTPC Computer

[author Thomas J Weaver]

Modifying the SwTPC 6800 computer to accept either the 6800 or 6809 processor board.


p.30 Radio Shack's Daisy Wheel Printer II

[author Yvon Kolya]

p.96 infinite BASIC and Infinite Business

[author Scott Mitchell]

p.202 IRV, a TRS-80 Utility Program

[author Teri Li]

p.253 The Heath H-14 Printer

[author Bradford Rehm]

p.262 Zork, The Great Underground Empire

[author Bob Liddil]


p.6 Editorial: Computer Speech: An Update

p.16 Letters

p.92, 266, 271, 325 Programming Quickies

p.94, 102, 290, 309 BYTE's Bits

p.138, 188, 196, Technical Forum: Recording with Current Nonlinearities in Illumination: Build a Null Modem


p.274 Education Forum: Microcomputers in the Chemistty Lab

p.280 Ask BYTE

p.288 System Notes

p.289 Software Received

p.292 Books Received

p.294 Clubs and Newsletters

p.298 Event Queue

p.304 Book Reviews

p.324 Cartoon

p.336 What's New?

p.382 Unclassified Ads

p.383 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.384 Reader Service

In This Issue

This month we talk about voices - computer voices, that is - and several other topics as well. Consulting Editor Mark Dahmke speaks out on speech in the editorial "Computer Speech: An Update." We also have two theme articles: "An Extremely Low-Cost Computer Voice Response System," which shows how to computerize your vox humana for very little money, and "Articulate Automata," which looks at the physiology of speech.

Also in this issue is Steve Ciarcia's do-it-yourself computerized Big Trak; everything you've always wanted to know about dynamic memory; inexpensive AID and D/A conversion; and much more, including reviews of the new Radio Shack Daisy Wheel Printer II, the Heath H-14 printer, not to mention Zork and IRV.

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Vol.6 n°3 march 1981


p.20 Structured Programming and Structured Flowcharts

[author Gregg Williams]

A technique that makes programs easier to write, understand, fix, and change.

p.36 Build the Disk-80: Memory Expansion and Floppy-Disk Control

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Steve discusses how to use dynamic memory and floppy-disk-controller integrated circuits and presents a design that incorporates them.

p.54 Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics, Part 1

[author Franklin C Crow]

Ways to display solid objects with the removal of hidden lines and surfaces.

p.132 What Is Good Documentation?

[author Jim Howard]

How to write clear and effective documentation.

p.166 A Beginner's Guide to Spectral Analysis, Part 2

[author Mark Zimmermann]

Images can be transformed into holograms via Fourier transforms.

p.262 A Simple Approach to Data Smoothing

[author Fred Ruckdeschel and Janice A Krinsky]

The techniques described here can aid in the interpretation of data taken from real-world situations.

p.300 The New Literacy: Programming Languages as Languages

[author Jon Handel]

BASIC, ALGOL, and APL are compared to the English language.

p.317 Computer Music: A Design Tutorial

[author Thomas P Orlofsky]

A modest amount of theory provides the background for building a simple program-controlled digital tone generator.


p.84 The Micro Matrix Photopoint Light Pen

[author Stephen B Gray]

p.90 What's Inside Radio Shack's Color Computer?

[author Tim Ahrens. Jack Browne, and Hunter Scales]


p.6 Editorial: Is This Really Necessary?

p.12 Letters

p.152. 333 Programming Quickies: Computing the Determinant of a Matrix: Constellation I: An Astronomy Program

p.155 Languages Forum: A Coding Sheet for FORTH

p.164, 314, 316 BYTE's Bits

p.216, 224, 234 Technical Forum: DATALINE; Addition and Subtraction: The 1802 Versus the Z80; Build a Simple Video Switch

p.230 Desk-Top Wonders: Hunt the Wumpus with Your HP-41C

p.236 System Notes: Software Addressing Modes for the 8080


p.248 Software Received

p.252 Books Received

p.254 Ask BYTE

p.308 Event Queue

p.315 Clubs and Newsletters

p.337 What's New?

p.382 Unclassified Ads

p.383 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.384 Reader Service

In This Issue

Do you have trouble making all the pieces fall in place when you are writing a new program? Robert Tinney's cover this month symbolizes the theme of programming methods. But the symbolism is only pictorial-the process of designing and putting a new program together is often much harder than assembling an intricate jigsaw puzzle. This issue includes several articles on different aspects of programming and design: "What Is Good Documentation?" by Jim Howard; "Structured Programming and Structured Flowcharts" and the editorial, "Is This Really Necessary?", both by Editor Gregg Williams; "A Coding Sheet for FORTH," by John O Bumgarner; and "A Simple Approach to Data Smoothing," by Fred Ruckdeschel and Janice A Krinsky.
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Vol.6 n°4 april 1981


p.20 Recurrence In Numerical Analysis

[author James J Davidson]

Recurrence can be used to simplify the calculation of Bessel functions.

p.36 Build a Low-Cost Logic Analyzer

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Turn your computer into a powerful diagnostic tool.

p.64 A-L BYTE Guide to The National Computer Conference and Chicago

Up-to-date information on the conference, the city, and much more.

p.66 Digital Minicassette Controller

[author James Kahn]

Use an intelligent peripheral controller to lighten the load on your computer system.

p.102 Programming the Game of Go

[author Jonathan K Millen]

Even though Go is much harder than chess, a microcomputer Go program can produce surprisingly good play.

p.122 Build Your Own Turing Machine

[author James Willis]

Three different practical versions of this theoretical tool produce the same output.

p.150 A Closer Look at the TI Speak & Spell

[author Peter Vernon]

The author expands on Michael Rigsby's September 1980 BYTE article.

p.218 An Introduction to Data Compression

[author Harold Corbin]

Information can be transmitted and stored using fewer data bits by appropriate techniques.

p.252 Build an Intercomputer Data Link

[author Mike Wingfield]

Using this software, systems based on the 6800 microprocessor can communicate with other systems.

p.290 Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics, Part 2

[author Franklin C Crow]

Software to display solid objects without hidden lines and surfaces.

p.348 PADDLES: interfacing with Modular Breadboards

[author Roger J Combs and Paul Field]

Designing and implementing breadboard circuits is greatly eased with the use of these standardized modules.


p.46 The MicroAce Computer

[author Delmar Searls]

p.94 A Reformatter for CP/M and IBM Floppy Disks

[author John Lehman]

p.188 Three Versions of APL

[author Gregg Williams]


p.6 Editorial: Future Trends in Personal Computing

p.10, 302 BYTE's Bugs

p.12 Letters

p.32, 34 Programming Quickles: Apple Name-Address: A Graphic Execution Display

p.98, 304, 310, 314 Technical Forum

MicroShakespeare Revisited or Kilobard

An ADM-3 Emulator for the Hazeltine 1500

Challenger Writes on Comprint

On the Use of Fourier Transforms to Explore Biological Rhythms

p.148 System Notes : A Relocatable Bootstrap for the Tarbell Disk Controller

p.158 Clubs and Newsletters

p.186 Cartoon


p.328 Ask BYTE

p.332 Event Queue

p.338 Books Received

p.344 Software Received

p.345 BYTE's Bits

p.359 What's New?

p.414 Unclassified Ads

p.415 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.416 Reader Service

In This Issue

"Future Computers" is our cover theme this month and the subject of the editorial. Before you write to comment on our cover's "unusual" design approach (created by artist Robert Tinney), keep in mind the proximity of April 1.

Elsewhere in this issue we describe Steve Ciarcia's latest project, a low-cost logic analyzer, and tell how to build your own Turing machine. Other articles include: a follow-up to our earlier review of the Sinclair computer, this time a description of the MicroAce kit version; a reformatter for CP/M and IBM-format floppy disks; a closer look at the TI Speak & Spell; a fascinating review of three different APL packages for the patient (but eager) APL fans in our audience; details about data compression; all about intercomputer data links and the game of Go; and the conclusion of an article from last month about 3-D computer graphics.

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Vol.6 n°5 may 1981


p.36 Extended Color BASIC for the TRS-80 Color Computer

[author Stan Miastkowski]

Fast, easy. and inexpensive graphics are finally available for personal computers with this new system from Radio Shack.

p.46 The Commodore VIC 20 Microcomputer: A Low Cost High Performance Consumer Computer

[author Gregg Williams]

The VIC 20 has color, Sound, graphics, and expandability, and sells for $299.9S.

p.66 DC Motor Controls: Build a Motorized Platform

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Appropriate circuts can very precisely control permanent-magnet DC motors.

p.128 Washington Tackles the Software Problem

[author Christopher Kern]

Recent court decisions pave the way for more software protection again piracy.

p.140 Legal Protection for Computer Hardware and Software

[author Stephen A Becker]

An overview of patents, copyrights, and trade secrets, and how they relate to computer software and hardware protection.

p.152 Wire-Wrapping and Proto-System Techniques

[author Adolph Mangieri]

Construction of homebrew designs is greatly aided by the complete wire-wrapping systems from Vector Electronics.

p.171 Speeding Up TRS-80 Graphics

[author Ronald Bobo and John Knoderer]

Improve the response time of BASIC graphics displays on you TRS-80.

p.204 An integer Math Package for the 8080

[author Bruce D Carbrey]

These routines are useful when you need arithmetic operations on signed 16-bit numbers.

p.280 Using interrupts on the Apple II System

[author George M White]

The use of interrupts in the 6502 microprocessor is demonstrated using an Apple II.

p.296 Digital Plotting with the Apple II Computer

[author Richard C Hallgren]

Interface an x.y plotter directly to an Apple II with a minimum of hardware.

p.316 Recursion and Side Effects in Pascal

[author Rotert Morris]

The use of global and local variables can change how a program works.

p.326 DEMONS: A Symbolic Debugging Monitor

[author A I Halsema]

Debug your machine-language programs for 6800-based systems using instruction mnemonics.

p.360 Build a Super Simple Floppy-Disk Interface, Part 1

[author James Nicholson and Roger Camp]

Ten integrated circuits can provide all the features of a commercial disk controller at a fraction of the cost.

p.408 A File Catalog System for UCSD Pascal

[author Edward Heyman]

Keep track of all those scattered files with this organization system.

p.436 Numerical Methods in Data Analysis

[author Toan C Nguyen] Gauss Jordon elimination and the Newton-Raphson method can be used to find the function curve that best fits a set of empirically determined data.


p.22 The Epson MX-80 and MX-70 Printers

[author Kevin Cohan]

p.106 BYTE's Arcade

Star Raiders

[author Gregg Williams]

Super Nova

[author Bob Liddil]

Tranquility Base

[author Robin Moore]

Asteroids in Space and Planetoids

[author Oliver Holt]

p.148 Dancing Demon from Radio Shack

[author Elizabeth Cooper and Yvan Kolya]

p.248 Super STEP

[author Stanley D Robbins]

p.254 Wordsmith

[author Mark Dahmke]


p.6 Editorial How Can We Stop Software Piracy?

p.12 Letters

p.102, 236 System Notes

Improve TRS-80 Dick Operation

Add an External Data Separatot

Faster BASIC br the Ohio Scientific

p.122 430 Programming Quickies

Using Page Two with Apple Pascal Turtle Graphics

Print for the C Function Library

p.126 Cartoon

p.186 Education Forum: Getting Problem Solving Advice From a Computer

p.198 Desk-Top Wonders: A Chessboad Journey on the TI-59 Programmable Calculator

p.228 378, 452, 458 Technical Forum

Print Your Own Bar Codes

UPC Bar Codes With the Centronics 737

PAPERBYTE© Bar Codes with Integral Data Systems Printers

Favorite Benchmaks and Other Programs

Build a Noise-Based Random-Number Generator

Fast Fourier Comes Back

p.232, 252 BYTEs Bugs

p.244, 380 Book Reviews

Principies of Interactive Computer Graphics 2nd Edition

Travels in Computerland, or Incompatibilities & interfaces


p.278, 428 BYTE's Bits

p.384 Ask BYTE

p.394 Softwae Received

p.398 Books Received

p.404 Clubs and Newsletters

p.447 Event Queue

p.463 What's New?

p.510 Unclassified Ads

p.511 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.512 Reader Service

In This Issue

Did you know that the Vikings were notorious pirates? In Robert Tinney's striking cover painting, executed from an original design by Jonathan Graves, the floppy disk is the "sail" that powers the underhanded business of software piracy. Included are several articles on the legal aspects of protecting software from unscrupulous pirates: Chris Morgan's editorial, "How Can We Stop Software Piracy?" (page 6); Christopher Kern's "Washington Tackles the Software Problem" (page 128), and Stephen A Becker's "Legal Protection for Computer Hardware and Software" (page 140).

Other noteworthy articles in this issue include in-depth examinations of the Extended Color BASIC for the TRS-80 Color Computer, the new Commodore VIC microcomputer, and the Epson MX-70 and MX-80 printers. And this issue begins a new occasional feature on microcomputer video games called "BYTE's Arcade."

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Vol.6 n°6 june 1981


p.36 Logo for Personal Computers

[author Harold Nelson]

A preview of the first small-computer versions of this exciting language.

p.46 Build a Low-Cost Speech-Synthesizer Interface

[author Steve Garcia]

The Digitalker integrated circuits from National Semiconductor can easily give your computer a limited spoken vocabulary.

p.72 Mathematical Modeling: A BASIC Program to Simulate Real-World Systems

[author Randall E Hicks]

A Compucolor II BASIC program effectively simulates a physical system through the solution of a system of linear differential equations.

p.110 A Computer-Based Laboratory Timer

[author John Gibson]

Accurate, repeatable tine measurements can be made in rapid succession, and logged for later use.

p.216 CP/M: A Family of 8- and 16-Bit Operating Systems

[author Gary Kildall]

An overview of Digital Research's operating systems, including a 16-bit operating system.

p.248 The UNIX Operating System and the XENIX Standard Operating Environment

[author Robert Greenberg]

An inside look at a large-computer operating system implemented for use with microprocessors.

p.268 The Ins and Outs of CP/M

[author James Larson]

Directly access the I/O and disk access functions of the CP/M operating system.

p.302 Build a Super Simple Floppy-Disk Interface, Part II

[author Roger Camp and James Nicholson]

A moderate amount of software makes the 10-device circuit into a flexible floppy-disk controller.

p.378 An Easy-to-Use A/D Converter

[author Robert Daggit]

This analog-to-digital converter features six input channels with accuracy of 8 to 10 bits.

p.392 The Impossible Dream: Computing e to 116,000 Places with a Personal Computer

[author Stephen Wozniak]

An 8-bit microcomputer is harnessed to the Herculean task of computing the mathematical constant e to 115,925 places.


p.24 RAMCRAM Memory Module for the Atari

[author Mark Pelczarski]

p.88 information Unlimited: The Dialog Information Retrieval Service

[author Stan Miastkowski]

p.176 Four Word Processors for the Apple II

[author Keith Carlson and Steve Haber]

p.352 Startrek 4.0 and Startrek 3.5

[author Scott Mitchell]

p.356 The BDS C Compiler

[author Christopher Kern]


p.6 Editorial: The New 16-Bit Operating Systems, or, The Search for Benützerfreundlichkeit

p.12 Letters

p.30, 162, 384 Technical Forums

LISP vs FORTRAN: A Fantasy

We Interrupt This Program...

A Votrax vocabulary

p.146 Education Forum

Microcomputers in Education: A Concept-Oriented Approach

p.168 Programming Quickie: Z80 Table Lookup


p.234 System Notes: LIST - A Source-Listing Program for the C Language

p.342 Ask BYTE

p.348 Software Received

p.350 Books Received

p.350, 370, 377 BYTE's Bits

p.364, 374 Book Reviews

Musical Applications c% Microprocessors

TEX and METAFONT: New Directions in Typesetting

p.371 Clubs and Newsletters

p.372 Event Queue

p.376 BYTE's Bugs

p.409 What's New?

p.462 Unclassified Ads

p.463 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.464 Reader Service

In This Issue

It's the operating systems that turn a hunk of hardware into a clever machine. As Robert Tinney's cover drawing depicts, they are the brains behind the brawn of today's computing systems.

This month two articles analyze the most popular operating system, "CP/M: A Family of 8- and 16-Bit Operating Systems," by Gary Kildall, and James Larson's "The Ins and Outs of CP/M." If you can get by the title of Chris Morgan's editorial - "The New 16-Bit Operating Systems, or, the Search for Benutzerfreundlichkeit" - you'll discover what form the operating systems of the future may take. And Robert Greenberg presents what may be the next popular operating system in his article, "The UNIX Operating System and the XENIX Standard Operating Environment."

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Vol.6 n°7 july 1981


p.26 The Santa Cruz Open: Othello Tournament for Computers

[author Peter W Frey]

One of the surprises was the impressive showing of the microcomputers and hand-held electronic units.

p.38 Build a Z8-Based Control Computer with BASIC, Part I

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Zilog's new single-chip microcomputers ease the construction of a small, inexpensive computer system.

p.48 Harvesting the Sun's Energy

[author George E Mobus]

A computer model helps determine the amount of solar energy received by a flatplate collector.

p.94 What Time Does the Sun Rise and Set?

[author Bruce Barkstrom]

This sunrise-sunset program calculates many parameters associated with the sun, including the amount of solar radiation received by the earth.

p.136 Multiprocessing with Motorola's MC6809E

[author Hunter Scales]

The MC6809E microprocessor is designed for use in a multiprocessor system.

p.158 Computer Simulation of a Solar-Energy System

[author Daniel Doan]

An electric-circuit model makes heat flow easier to understand.

p.178 Energy Conservation with a Microcomputer

[author David R Jackson and John M Callahan]

The principles of energy conservation can be applied to your home using a program written in PET (Microsoft) BASIC.

p.230 Kalman Mileage Predictor-Monitor

[author Jerry Lobdill]

Predicting your cars fuel economy can alert you to mechanical problems.

p.252 The infamous Traveling-Salesman Problem: A Practical Approach

[author Richard T Parry and Howard Pleffer]

A decision-tree pruning algorithm greatly reduces the time needed to solve the traveling-salesman problem.

p.308 Micromodem Support in Apple Pascal

[author Scott G Robinson]

Pascal support of the standard operational features of the Micromodem II.

p.326 Life After Death

[author Pat Macaluso]

A variation on the game of Life that introduces the concept of a cellular hereafter.

p.388 Computer-Aided Drafting with Apple Pascal

[author Dan Sokol]

Special routines link the Apple Graphics Tablet to UCSD Pascal in this computer-aided-drafting project.


p.60 Mountain Computer's MusicSystem

[author Robin B Moore]

p.174 The Atari Assembler/Editor

[author Mark Pelczarski]

p.334 DOS Plus: Double-Density Operating System for the TRS-80

[author Yvon Kolya]

p.344 Percom's Doubler

[author Mahlon G Kelly]

p.354 Videx Keyboard and Display Enhancer

[author Mark Pelczarski]


p.6 Editorial: IBM's Personal Computer

p.14 Letters

p.24, 134 System Notes: Terminal Width Problems with the OSI Challenger: Changes to FLOPTRAN-IV

p.118 BYTE's Bugs

p.120, 294, 300 Programming Oupckies: Hurricane Tracking: Energy Management with the Apple II: Computing Inflation with the Consumer Price Index

p.210 Ask BYTE

p.221 Books Received


p.358 Education Forum: Animation in Computer-Assisted Instruction: The Replication of DNA

p.368 Technical Forum: Catch Bytes with a Comparator

p.372 Event Queue

p.380, 385 BYTE's Bits

p.382 Clubs and Newsletters

p.386 Software Received

p.180, 430 Cartoon

p.433 What's New?

p.494 Unclassthed Ads

p.495 BOMB. BOMB Results

p.496 Reader Service

In This Issue

This month's cover painting by Robert Tinney shows our own solution to the energy crunch: a computerized "solar system." To illustrate this month's theme of energy conservation, we present a variety of articles, including "Harvesting the Sun's Energy," "Computer Simulation of a Solar Energy System," "Energy Conservation With a Microcomputer," and "Energy Measurement With the Apple."

Also in this issue are a discussion of IBM's new personal computer; the first part of Steve Ciarcia's exciting new Z8 single-board computer project (about which there was much interest at the recent National Computer Conference); another solution to the traveling-salesman problem; Micromodem support in Apple Pascal; Kalman filters; hurricane tracking by computer; the Atari Assembler/Editor; a report on the Santa Cruz Computer Othello tournament; and much more, including all the regular BYTE features.

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Vol.6 n°8 august 1981


p.14 introducing the Smalltalk-80 System

[author Adele Goldberg]

A readers' guide to the Smalltalk articles in this issue.

p.36 The Smalltalk-80 System

[author the Xerox Learning Research Group]

How message-sending objects are used in the Smalltalk-80 system.

p.50 Build a Z8-Based Control Computer with BASIC, Part 2

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Steve continues his description of the Z8-BASIC Microcomputer and suggests two applications.

p.74 Object-Oriented Software Systems

[author David Robson]

Object-oriented software systems provide the underlying design of Smalltalk.

p.90 The Smalltalk Environment

[author Larry Tesler]

Programming and debugging in Smalltalk are always interactive activities.

p.147 User-Oriented Descriptions of Smalltalk Systems

[author Trygve M H Reenskaug]

A Smalltalk application program will limit the user's access to the language.

p.168 The Smalltalk Graphics Kernel

[author Daniel H H Ingalls]

The Graphics Kernel provides the interface through which all text and graphics are displayed.

p.200 The Japanese Computer invasion

[author Stan Miastkowski]

Like it or not, the Japanese small computers are on their way.

p.230 Building Data Structures In the Smalltalk-80 System

[author James C Althoff Jr]

Many kinds of data structures can be added easily to the Smalltalk-80 system.

p.286 Design Principles Behind Smalltalk

[author Daniel H H ingalls]

The design principles of a language strongly affect its power and usability.

p.300 The Smalltalk-80 Virtual Machine

[author Glenn Krasner]

The use of a Smalltalk-80 Virtual Machine allows the system to be transported easily among different 16-bit microprocessors.

322 Building Control Structures in the Smalltalk-80 System [author L Peter Deutsch]

Design of complicated control structures is easy in the Smallralk-80 language

p.348 Is the Smalltalk-80 System for Children?

[author Adele Goldberg and Joan Ross]

Although Smalltalk-80 is not meant to be used by children, application programs can be written that will allow them to be creative and, at the same time, learn about programming.

p.369 ToolBox: A Smalitalk Illustration System

[author William Bowman and Bob Flegal]

The versatile Smalltalk-80 language can create an environment for graphics design that can be used by non technically oriented people.

p.378 Virtual Memory for an Object-Oriented Language

[author Ted Kaehler]

Virtual memory techniques must be used when the active memory space needed by a language is much larger than the amount of available memory.


p.398 Microsoft Editor/Assembler Plus

[author Keith Carlson]

p.401 BOSS: A Debugging Utility for the TRS-80 Model I

[author Scott Mitchell]


p.6 Editorial: Smalltalk: A Language for the 1980s

p.30 Letters

p.197 BYTE's Bits


p.392 BYTE's Bugs

p.388 Ask BYTE

p.391 Books Received

p.391 Software Received

p.392 Clubs and Newsletters

p.394 Event Queue

p.402, 413 System Notes: Indirect I/O Addressing on the 8080: Aim-65 16-bit Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion

p.404, 408, 414, 417, 418 Programming Quickies: A Disk Catalog for the Eighties: Alpha-Beta Tree Search Converted to Assembler; Fast Line-Drawing Techniques: Word Ujbnmarle: Binary-to-BCD Converter Program for The 8080

p.421 What's New?

p.478 Unclassified Ads

p.479 Reader Service

p.480 BOMB, BOMB Results

In This Issue

Smalltalk isn't small talk any more. Three years ago, the cover of BYTE depicted the island kingdom of Smalltalk as a place where great and magical things happen, though its "craggy aloofness" kept it out of the mainstream of the computer programming community. During the past three years the Xerox Learning Research Group has continued developing Smalltalk, and this month we present the culmination of its work - the debut of the Smalltalk-80 system.

Because of the special nature of this issue, we have added a special introduction by Adele Goldberg, manager of the Xerox Learning Research Group based in Palo Alto, California. Adele guides you gently through the array of articles-describing the Smalltalk-80 system and related topics.

In addition to our regular features, we also have the concluding part of Steve Ciarcia's article, "Build a Z8-Based Control Computer with BASIC." And Stan Miastkowski presents an in-depth report on what we can expect from Japan in his article, "The Japanese Computer Invasion."

1981/byte_1981_09.jpg 1981/byte_1981_09_index.jpg

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Vol.6 n°9 september 1981


p.27 A Look at NCC'81

[author Steven K Roberts]

A photo essay on the National Computer Conference held last May in Chicago.

p.38 Build an Unlimited-Vocabulary Speech Synthesizer

[author Steve Ciarcia]

An easy-to-use speech synthesizer can be designed using the Vorrax SC-01 Speech Synthesizer Chip.

p.58 the Xerox Alto Computer

[author Thomas A Wadlow]

Some attributes of this research tool will be used in the next generation of personal computers.

p.72 Tree Searching, Part 1: Basic Techniques

[author Gregg Williams]

A BASIC program allows your computer to solve a sliding-blocks puzzle.

p.112 One Step Forward-Three Steps Backup, Computing in the US Space Program

[author Patrick Stakem]

The stringent demands of space exploration are met by several 8- and 16-bit microprocessors.

p.164 ArtificIal intelligence

[author Steven K Roberts]

Intelligent computers could ease the task of dealing with vast amounts of information, if certain problems can be solved.

p.180 A High-Level Language Benchmark

[author Jim Gilbreath]

Speed benchmarks for more than fifty implementations of high-level languages.

p.200 Science Fiction's intelligent Computers

[author Donald Byrd]

Current knowledge of artificial intelligence puts science fiction to the test.

p.216 Symbolic Differentiation à la LISP

[author Ronald L Nicol]

The list-manipulation abilities of LISP are easily adapted to differentiating mathematical functions.

p.238 Knowledge-Based Expert Systems Come of Age

[author Richard O Duda and John G Gaschnig]

If an expert can do a specialized, self-contained task, so can a program.

p.284 The Atari Tutorial, Part 1: The Display List

[author Chris Crawford]

The display list allows you to mix both text and graphics on the same video-display screen.

p.304 Natural-Language Processing, The Field in Perspective

[author Gary Hendrix and Earl Sacerdoti]

Systems that interact in Enghsh must have some understanding of human psychology and the world outside the computer.

p.414 The Emperor's Old Clothes

[author Charles Antony Richard Hoare]

Mr Hoare. winner of the 1980 ACM Turing Award, reflects on his career and speculates on the future.


p.52 The Big Board: A Z80 System In Kit Form

[author David Thompson]

p.146 Misosys Software's DISKMOD: Put Radio Shack's Editor/Assembler on Disk

[author Steve Hughes]

p.150 MINCE, A Text Editor

[author Christopher O Kern]

p.384 BYTE's Arcade

Big Five Software

[author Gregg Williams]

The Prisoner

[author Bob Liddil]

p.388 Three Microcomputer LISPs

[author Steven P Levitan and Jeffrey G Bonar]

p.436 Interactive Fiction: Six Micro Stories

[author Bob Liddil]


p.6 Editorial: Odds and Beginnings

p.10 Letters

p.34, 108 Book Reviews: Principles of Artificial Intelligence; Turtle Geometry

p.110, 383, 412 BYTE's Bugs

p.162 Programming Quickies: Changing a BASIC FOR...NEXT Loop into a REPEAT...UNTIL Loop


p.360 Ask BYTE

p.364 Books Received

p.366 Clubs and Newsletters

p.372 Event Queue

p.383 Software Received

p.412, 425 BYTE's Bits

p.426, 428, 435 Technical Forum

Microcomputers and the IRS

Add Dual Trace and Delayed Sweep to Your Oscilloscope

How to Build an Inexpensive Cassette Level Indicator

p.432 System Notes: An Almost Optimum Z80 Memory Test Program

p.441 What's New?

p.494 Unclassified Ads

p.495 Reader Service

p.496 BOMB. BOMB Results

In This Issue

Computerized natural-language processing is one of the many topics that have come to be associated with artificial intelligence. As Robert Tinney's cover suggests, computers someday may be able to read and understand War and Peace. Steven Roberts' article "Artificial Intelligence" is a good place to start, and "Natural-Language Processing, The Field in Perspective," by Gary Hendrix and Earl Sacerdoti, addresses this month's theme. Donald Byrd discusses the point at which fact meets fiction in "Science Fiction's Intelligent Computers," and Ronald L Nicol focuses on the artificial intelligence community's primary language in "Symbolic Differentiation a la LISP."

Steve Ciarcia has prepared an alternate way of eliciting speech from a computer with "Build an Unlimited-Vocabulary Speech Synthesizer." We also have a description of the Xerox Alto computer by Thomas A Wadlow, and we take a look at NASA's high-flying computing machinery in Patrick Stakem's "One Step Forward-Three Steps Backup."

1981/byte_1981_10.jpg 1981/byte_1981_10_index.jpg

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Vol.6 n°10 october 1981


p.26 The IBM Personal Computer first Impressions

[author Phil Lemmons]

The computer glare embraces software compatibility and support for independent peripheral manufacturers.

p.36 Build an Intelligent EPROM Programmer

[author Steve Clarda]

With a Z8-BASIC Microcomputer, you can easily put together a versatile programmer for 2716 EPROMs.

p.50 Ultra-Low-Cost Network for Personal Computers

[author Ken Clements and Dave Daugherty]

The age of communication for personal cornputers has arrived; don't be left behind

p.70 The Atari Tutorial. Part 2: Graphics indirection

[author Chris Crawford]

Graphics indirection lets you quickly change the colors used in the video display and redefine the Atari character set.

p.92 Local-Area Networks. Possibilities for Personal Computers

[author Dr Harry J Saal]

The "one person, one computer" concept is improved wiht communications.

p.114 Prepare Your Program for Publication

[author C A Johnson]

A checklist of professional touches that can make software sell

p.126 Software Protection In the United Kingdom

[author Martin Hayman]

A London conference confronts the problem & software piracy.

p.140 Network Tools, Ideas for Intelligent Network Software

[author Peter B Reintjes]

A set of general modules provides a basis for networking.

p.176 A Simple Implementation of Multitasking

[author Wendell Brown]

A little SLEEP can go a long way

p.195 Tree Searching, Part 2: Heuristic Techniques

[author Gregg Williams]

Admissible algorithms allow you to few an optimal solution without an exhaustive search of the slate-space tree

p.214 Drawing with UCSD Pascal and the Hiplot Plotter

[author Dr James Stork]

Some UCSD plotting routines that can be linked to any Pascat program

p.250 Evaluate Your Homes Energy Efficiency, Conserve Energy with Your Computer

[author Kimball Beasley]

Use your computer to lower those budget-breaking heat bills.

p.264 Bridging the 10-Percent Gap

[author Paul T Brady]

Software problems can hold back a small-businsess data-processing explosion.

p.284 Graphics Fundamentals

[author Kathleen Bresnahan Sandifur]

A company logo is the vehicle for understanding windows and scaling

p.400 Build a Versatile Keyboard Interface for the S-100

[author David R Richards]

A device that lets you communicate with your microcomputer

p.407 PERT Organization

[author W Douglas Maurer]

A mathematical method used by computer programmers to determine the relative importance of the tasks under their supervision.

p.413 Should the DO Loop Become an Assembly-Language Construct?

[author Glenn L Williams]

Innovative instructions can forestall the "software crisis."

p.430 Multiple Regression for the TRS-80

[author Douglas William Madron]

On converting the machematics of linear regression into a general-purpose BASIC program

p.448 Bits and Bytes in Pascal, and Other Binary Wonders

[author David Casseres]

Put UCSD Pascal through its paces to ease programming and have fun

p.458 Apple Analog-to-Digital Conversion In 27 microseconds

[author Michael A Seeds]

Bui1d this high-speed 10-bit analog-to-digital converter for your Apple for less than $100

p.462 PS-A FORTH-Like Threaded Language. Part 1

[author Valo G Motalygo]

PS allows assembly-language code and high-level code to be mixed


p.86 Atari's Telelink

[author Glen Flint]

p.378 Integral Data's Paper Tiger 460

[author Eliakim Willner]

p.383 The Mauro Proac Plotter

[author Mark Dahmke]

p.385 The Radio Shack FORTRAN Package

[author Tim Daneliuk]


p.6 Editorial

p.10 Letters

p.122 278, 334, 354. 467 System Notes

List Pager

Discover the Machine Beneath the Machine, A Z80 Monitor Program

A Closet Look at the TRS-80 Color Computer

Two Short Graphics Programs for the OSI C-IP

Recursive Procedures for the 6502 Microprocessor

p.302 Software Received

p.304 Books Received


p.316 Ask BYTE

p.324 Event Queue

p.332 Clubs and Newsletters

p.332, 375 BYTE's Bits

p.342 Book Reviews. Four Roads to Undersianding Radio Shacks TRS-80

p.356, 376, 419 Programming Quickies

Memory Manipulator, Eliminate Hex-a-Phobia

A Fast, Ancient Method for Multiplication

Apple Pascal Cross-Reference

p.366, 391, 394 Technical Forums

Use a Relative Subroutine Call for Relocatable Z80 Programs

The Variable-Duty-Cycle Algorithm

Dynamic Simulation in BASIC

p.372 Languages Forum: BASIC, Pascal, or Tiny-c? A Simple Benchmarking Comparison

p.471 What's New?

p.526 Unclassified Ads

p.527 Reader Service

p.528 BOMB. BOMB Results

In This Issue

Local-area networks are a means of sharing information and resources among many personal computers located within a relatively short distance of each other. As Robert Tinney's cover illustrates, each station in the network is linked physically to the others, but each also can operate independently. The local networks themselves need not operate in a void; gateways can link them with other networks thousands of miles away. To expand on this month's theme, we present an assortment of articles, including "Local-Area Networks: Possibilities for Personal Computers," "Ultra-Low-Cost Network for Personal Computers," and "Network Tools-Ideas for Intelligent Network Software." In addition, Steve Ciarcia helps you "Build an Intelligent EPROM Programmer," and Martin Hayman discusses "Software Protection in the United Kingdom." We have "The Atari Tutorial, Part 2: Graphics Indirection," and C A Johnson advises on how to "Prepare Your Program for Publication." Of course, you can also enjoy our regular features and much more.

1981/byte_1981_11.jpg 1981/byte_1981_11_index.jpg

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Vol.6 n°11 november 1981


p.18 Writing with a Data-Base Management System

[author Edward E Brent Jr]

word-processing systems work fine after you know what you're going to say, but a data-base management system can help you get it all together.

p.36 Switching Power Supplies, An Introduction

[author Steve Ciarcia]

You can experiment with a simple design for a nonisolated single-ended switching voltage regulator

p.48 Fundamentals of Relational Data Organization

[author Joel Neely and Steve Stewart]

How you can apply a set of mathematically elegant principles to the organization of your data base

p.62 Build a Bar-Code Scanner Inexpensively

[author Bradley W Bennett]

In one package, Hewlett-Packard has incorporated the optical heart of a scanner system

p.84 The Microcomputer as a Laboratory instrument

[author Daniel Cosgrove]

The microcomputer can become a Standard laboratory instrument for running experiments and analyzing the results.

p.97 Data-Base Management Systems: Powerful Newcomers to Microcomputers

[author Michael Gagle, Gary J Koehler, and Andrew Whinston]

A brief introduction to data-base systems leads to a look at how one microcomputer implementation works

p.174 DIF: A Format for Data Exchange between Applications Programs

[author Candace E Kalish and Malinda F Mayer]

Software Arts proposes a solution to the problem of inaccessible data.

p.208 A Survey of Data-Base Management Systems for Microcomputers

[author Kathryn S Barley and James R Driscoll]

Data-base management systems are becoming a popular software item. Check this survey for the one that interests you

p.236 PDO: A Data Manager for Beginners, Don't Reinvent the Wheel

[author Paul Swanson]

A well-known technique makes a good compromise between speed and ease of programrnrsg

p.312 The Atari Tutorial, Part 3: Player-Missile Graphics

[author Chris Crawford]

The Atari player-missile system allows you to move game figures across the screen quickly and easily-even in BASIC

p.370 Toward a Structured 6809 Assembly Language, Part 1: An Introduction to Structured Assembly Language

[author Gregory Walker]

The problem with tne goto Construct is that it is too general a proqramming form.

p.384 PROLOG, A Step Toward the Ultimate Computer Language

[author Ron Ferguson]

This high-level language approaches English in ease to use

p.400 PS-A FORTH-Like Threaded Language, Part 2

[author Valo G Motalygo]

PS overcomes some of the problems FORTH has with low-revel word definition

p.472 Linking a Pascal Microengine to a Cyber 170

[author Steven M Sedlet and Jonathan Dust]

A simple file-transfer process combines the best of both worlds

p.493 Information Hiding In Pascal, Packages and Pointers

[author Michael B Feldman]

Hiding unnecessary details improves high-level programming


p.76 Reversal, Othello for the Apple II

[author Mark Friedman]

p.126 The Exatron Stringy Floppy Data-Storage System

[author Keith Carlson]

p.138 The Datahandler from Miller Microcomputer Services

[author Allyn Richardson]

p.152 Microsoft Softcard

[author Mark Pelczarski]

p.166 CourseWare Magazine

[author Elaine Holden]

p.264 Orchestra-80

[author Elizabeth Cooper and Yvon Kolya]

p.274 Apple II File-Management Systems

[author Ken Blochowiak]

p.342 ENHBAS

[author Mahlon G Kelly]

p.434 Five Spelling-Correction Programs for CP/M-Based Systems

[author Phil Lemmons]


p.6 Editorial: Can We Agree on Standards?

p.10 Letters

p.8, 308 BYTE'S Bits

p.134 BYTE Comment: Reviewing the Microcomputer Revolution


p.364 Ask BYTE

p.409 Languages Forum: A View from the Lectern: What's Wrong with Technical Writing Today?

p.413 Technical Forum: Where Am I? A Proposal for a New Microprocessor Instruction

p.414 Programming Quickies: WRITELONG. A Pascal Simulation of Long-Integer Output

p.449 User's Column

p.458, 463 Book Reviews

p.464 Software Received

p.465 Clubs and Newsletters

p.466 Event Queue

p.490 Books Received

p.499 System Notes: A Voice for the Apple II without Extra Hardware

p.505 What's New?

p.558 Unclassified Ads

p.559 Reader Service

p.560 BOMB. BOMB Results

In This Issue

Office workers who bravely face that ever-growing mountain of paper will tell you that keeping track of information becomes more difficult daily. How to impose order? As Robert Tinney's cover suggests, the answer is something like an electronic file cabinet. This month's theme concerns the problems of data management. Joel Neely and Steve Stewart will get you started with "Fundamentals of Relational Data Organization." From there you can move on to "Data-Base Management Systems: Powerful Newcomers to Microcomputers," "A Survey of Data-Base Management Systems for Microcomputers," and "PDO: A Data Manager for Beginners." "DIF: A Format for Data Exchange between Applications Programs" presents a strong argument for standardization of data formats. Apple II file-management systems are reviewed. And you can learn how to write with your data-base management system. Is spelling a nightmare? If so, you'll be interested in Phil Lemmons' review of the five major CP/M spelling-correction programs. Of course, there's Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar, BYTELINES, and our other regular features, too.

1981/byte_1981_12.jpg 1981/byte_1981_12_index.jpg

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Vol.6 n°12 december 1981


p.36 The Coinless Arcade

[author Gregg Williams]

With microcomputer games, you can have your fun and your quarters too.

p.42 Build a Touch Tone Decoder for Remote Control

[author Steve Clarcia]

Once you get your computer to answer the telephone and decode tone signals, you can use it for remote control.

p.134 Color Computer from A to D, Make Your Color Computer "See and "Feel" Better

[author William Barden Jr]

Hardware and software projects to tie your Color Computer to the real world.

p.166 The Atari Tutorial, Part 4: Display-List Interrupts

[author Chris Crawford]

How to get the most out of the Atari 400 and 800s color-graphics features.

p.190 How to Build a Maze

[author David Matuszek]

Generate unique random mazes for puzzles and games.

p.198 Toward a Structured 6809 Assembly Language, Part 2: implementing a Structured Assembler

[author Gregory Walker]

Implementing GOTO-less structure in an already existing language is easy with macroinstructions.

p.229 MIKBUG and the TRS-80, Part I: A Cross-Assembler for the Motorola 6800

[author Robert Labenski]

A TRS-80 cross-assembler package for those who are tired of hand-assembling code and loading it two bytes at a time into MIKBUG.

p.258 What Makes Computer Games Fun?

[author Thomas W Malone]

Why the average outer-space game may be more educational than many classroom drill-and-practice programs.

p.320 Computer Scrabble

[author Joseph J Roehrig]

Give your computer a vocabulary and challenge it to a fascinating game of micro-Scrabble.

p.352 Generating Programs Automatically

[author Jacob R Jacobs]

Three utility programs help write the Applesoft BASIC program for you.

p.366 BYTE's Cumulative Index

[author Microcomputer Information Services]

Our six-year cumulative index will put an end to your random searches through past issues of BYTE for that specific article.

p.452 Online information Retrieval: Promise and Problems

[author Steven K Roberts]

The public must be convinced that online databases provide efficiency, economy and convenience.

p.474 Handi-Writer, A Video Note Pad for the Physically Handicapped

[author Howard Batie]

How to turn the TRS-80 into a communications device for severely handicapped persons.


p.24 Robotwar

[author Curtis Feigel]

p.74 BYTE's Arcade

Olympic Decathlon

[author David A Kater]

Missile Defense vs ABM

[author Robert Moskowitz]


[author Peter V Callamaras]

Commbat: A Trio Game for Two

[author George Stewart]

p.108 alphaSyntauri Music Synthesizer

[author Steve Levine and Bill Mauchly]

p.163 Battle of the Asteroids

[author Gregg Williams]

p.304 Pascal-80

[author Rowland Archer]

p.486 Starfighter

[author Eric Grammer]


p.6 Editorial: New Games, New Directions

p.14 Letters

p.22, 132 BYTE's Bits

p.132, 483 Book Reviews: AIM 65 Laboratory Manual and Study Guide; Apple Machine Language

p.252 Ask BYTE

p.278 System Notes: The Game of Left/Right

p.302 BYTE Game Contest


p.462 Event Queue

p.465 Books Received

p.466 Clubs and Newsletters

p.467 Software Received

p.469 Technical Forum: Apple X10 Control

p.484 Languages Forum: APL Runs Circles

p.489 what's New?

p.542 uclassified Ads

p.543 Reader Service

p.544 BOMB, BOMB Results

In This Issue

Playing games may not be the most important task your computer does, but it sure makes for a lot of fun. As Robert Tinney's cover illustrates, computers play a central role in our recreational activites. BYTE's writers have been working hard at playing games, and their articles and reviews will help you pick and choose from among the many computer games available. Senior editor Gregg Williams speculates on the shape of games to come in the editorial, "New Games, New Directions." Thomas W Malone analyzes the attraction of computer games in "What Makes Computer Games Fun?" To learn how you can turn your game ideas into cash, see the rules for the BYTE Game Contest, page 302. On a more serious note, the Atari Tutorial continues with Part 4, "Display-List Interrupts" and William Barden Jr presents the first installment of a new series on Radio Shack computers, "Color Computer from A to D, Make your Color Computer 'See' and 'Feel' Better." BYTE's six-year cumulative index will eliminate those random searches for that specific article. See page 366. All this, plus our regular features.

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