Vol.8 n°1 january 1983

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Features

p.30 The Compaq Computer

[author Mark Dahmke]

The latest IBM-compatible microcomputer, this portable machine can run all IBM system software, and it costs less than the Personal Computer.

p.40 Microcomputing, British Style

[author Gregg Williams]

Our Senior Editor braved the crowds and the clamor of the fifth Personal Computer World Show to bring us this firsthand account.

p.54 Build the Circuit Cellar MPX-16 Computer System, Part 3

[author Steve Ciarcia]

The final installment describes the design of the MPX-16, which is I/O compatible with the IBM Personal Computer.

p.86 Heath's HER0-1 Robot

[author Steven Leininger]

This microcomputer-controlled robot demonstrates the principles of automation and robotics.

p.100 IBM's "Secret" Computer: the 9000

[author Chris Morgan]

IBM Instruments Inc. manufacturers a 68000-based instrumentation computer that could become a powerful business machine.

p.128 The Next Generation of Microprocessor

[author Timothy Stryker]

Before too long. integrated-circuit manufacturers will be marketing single-chip processors that directly implement high-level languages in hardware.

p.152 Maximizing Power In Multiuser Architectures

[author Mark Garetz]

A system design combines the advantages of a single-processor multiuser system with those of both loosely and tightly coupled networks.

p.166 Personal Computers In the Eighties

[author Greggory S. Blundell]

A recent study shows that the market potential for the next decade is enormous.

p.186 Meet You at the Fair

[author Philip A. Schrodt]

A first-person report of the $ 12.5-million high-tech rock concert sponsored by Steve Wozniak.

p.198 Public Key Cryptography

[author John Smith]

An introduction to a powerful cryptographic system for use on microcomputers.

p.234 Atari Player-Missile Graphics In BASIC

[author Paul S. Swanson]

The Atari computer offers a unique way to manipulate graphics in a BASIC program.

p.254 Problem Oriented Language, Part 2: Writing a Module

[author Mark Finger]

Develop a problem oriented program with simplified data input.

p.283 Eratosthenes Revisited: Once More through the Sieve

[author Jim Gilbreath and Gary Gilbreath]

A closer look at a benchmark prime-number program and various Pascal and C compilers.

p.371 Vector Graphics for the TRS-80

[author Dan Rollins]

How to incorporate machine-language graphics into your BASIC programs.

p.396 Simulation of Simple Digital Logic through a Computer-Aided Design System

[author Robert McDermott]

Computer-aided design for hobbyists.

p.418 User's Column: Burnouts, Bargains, and Two Sleek Portables

[author Jerry Pournelle]

The tireless industry critic mourns Ezekial and seeks comfort from the exquisite Adelle, who happens to be an Otrona Attache.

Reviews

p.110 Apple-Cat II

[author James A. Pope]

p.330 Whitesmiths C Compiler

[author Larry Reid and Andrew P. McKinlay]

p.346 Analyst and Qsort by Structured Systems Group

[author Jack L. Abbott]

p.364 The Timex/Sinclair 1000

[author Billy Garrett]

p.446 Supervyz and Organizr: Two Menu-Driven Front Ends for CP/M

[author Christopher O. Kern]

Nucleus

p.6 Editorial: New Hardware

p.14 Letters

p.222, 381 System Notes: Exploring the Commodore VIC-20; Autograph: A Plotting Subroutine in TRS-80 Level II BASIC

p.272, 276, 386 Book Reviews: Teletext and Videotex in the United States; Structured Systems Programming; Silent Witness: A Novel of Computer Crime

p.387, 454 Programming Quickies: Another Binary to BCD Conversion Routine; High-Speed Pascal Text File I/O

p.386, 468, 475, 479, 485 BYTE's Bits

p.391 BYTE's Bugs

p.463 BYTELINES

p.469 Clubs and Newsletters

p.470 Event Queue

p.476 Software Received

p.480 Books Received

p.481 Ask BYTE

p.486 What's New?

p.541 Unclassified Ads

p.542 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.544 Reader Service

p.54 In This Issue

The microcomputer industry is still moving along at a good clip. New and improved products proliferate and the battle for shelf space and consumers' cash is as heated as ever. This month we feature several of the latest offerings and look ahead at the shape of things to come. Showcased in our cover photo, by Paul Avis, are three such items: the Compaq computer, a portable unit that boasts complete compatibility with the IBM Personal Computer; the HERO-1 Robot from Heath Co., an educational device that demonstrates principles of automation and robotics; and the Epson QX-10/Valdocs System, a machine noteworthy for the way in which its software and hardware are integrated (for a product description see September 1982 BYTE, page 54). Chris Morgan describes "IBM's 'Secret' Computer: the 9000," Billy Garrett reviews "The Timex/Sinclair 1000," Timothy Stryker discusses "The Next Generation of Microprocessor," and Greggory S. Blundell looks at "Personal Computers in the Eighties." Gregg Williams reports on his recent trip to the Personal Computer World Show in London in "Microcomputing, British Style." Philip A. Schrodt gives us a first-person report of the U.S. Festival, a high-tech rock concert, in "Meet You at the Fair." Steve Garcia concludes his three-part article "Build the Circuit Cellar MPX-16 Computer System." Plus we have our regular features and reviews.


Vol.8 n°2 february 1983

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Features

p.33 The Lisa Computer System

[author Gregg Williams]

State-of-the-art hardware and software are combined in this new machine that literally anyone can use.

p.54 Build a Handheld LCD Terminal

[author Steve Ciarcia]

A single-line display is quite adequate for many troubleshooting and monitoring applications.

p.68 Apple's Enhanced Computer: The Apple IIe

[author Robin Moore]

For about the same price as the II, the IIe gives you a variety of exciting new features and capabilities.

p.90 An Interview with Wayne Rosing, Bruce Daniels, and Larry Tesler

[author Chris Morgan, Gregg Williams, and Phil Lemmons]

Three key members of Apple's engineering staff discuss the development of the Lisa computer system.

p.118 The Enhanced VIC-20, Part 1: Adding a Reset Switch

[author Joel Swank]

How to add a convenient feature to your VIC-20.

p.130 The World of Standards

[author Chuck Card, R. Donald Prigge, Josephine L. Walkowicz, and Marjorie F. Hill]

The process for producing American National Standards is full of checks and balances.

p.146 Welcome to the Standards Jungle

[author Ian H. Witten]

An in-depth look at the confusing world of computer connections.

p.182 A Proposed Floppy-Disk Format Standard

[author Chuck Card]

A brief description of a proposed format that will allow you to interchange disks from several systems.

p.194 The Proposed ANSI BASIC Standard

[author Ronald Anderson]

The committee asks for your opinion.

p.203 NAPLPS: A New Standard for Text and Graphics, Part 1: Introduction, History, and Structure

[author Jim Fleming and William Frezza]

A close look at an important and controversial new communications standard.

p.256 Realizing Graphics Standards for Microcomputers

[author Fred E. Langhorst and Thomas B. Clarkson III]

Use of the Virtual Device Interface graphics system will make portable graphics application software possible.

p.272 The IEEE Standard for the S-100 Bus

[author Mark Garetz]

Standardization helps manufacturers design compatible components independently.

p.314 Problem Oriented Language, Part 3: Assembling the Modules

[author Mark Finger]

The final segment of this article describes assembling the modules into a complete programming system.

p.347 User's Column: Confessions, Pascal Prime, Wescon, and Perfect Writer

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Our resident critic comments on Wescon and text editors.

p.392 Shape-Table Graphics for the TRS-80

[author Dan Rollins]

Draw complex shapes with a single command.

p.452 Passing Untyped Parameters In UCSD Pascal

[author Eliakim Willner]

An assembler-language function and a "trick" combine in a parameter-passing method.

p.458 A Terminal Program for the TRS-80 Model III

[author Ralph L. James]

A world of information is just a phone call away.

Reviews

p.302 The Scribble Text Processor

[author Christopher O. Kern]

p.366 LDOS Utilities

[author Tim Daneliuk]

Nucleus

p.6 Editorial: Standards: The Love/Hate Relationship

p.14 Letters

p.28, 127, 370, 433, 441 BYTE's Bits

p.370, 374 Book Reviews: 68000 Assembly Language Programming; A Practical Introduction to Computer Graphics

p.371 Technical Forum: The Magic of the Monte Carlo Method

p.378 System Notes: A High-Resolution Analog-to-Digital Converter for the TRS-80

p.428 BYTELINES

p.434 Event Queue

p.441 Books Received

p.442 Ask BYTE

p.444 Clubs and Newsletters

p.446 Software Received

p.468 What's New?

p.525 Unclassified Ads

p.526 BOMB. BOMB Results

p.527 Reader Service

In This Issue

Microcomputer enthusiasts have been eagerly awaiting the release of Apple's new machines, the Lisa and the IIe (featured in our cover photo by Mike Blake). Officially announced on January 19, these computers, especially the Lisa, are big news. Rumors have been rife about Apple's new products for quite a while, but now the speculation has come to an end and BYTE features three exclusive articles about them. Gregg Williams writes an in-depth description of "The Lisa Computer System," Robin Moore reviews "Apple's Enhanced Computer: The Apple IIe," and Chris Morgan, Gregg Williams, and Phil Lemmons interview three key members of the Lisa design team.

A boon to microcomputer users and a bane to many manufacturers, standards are a current hot topic within the computer industry. This month we feature several articles on the topic of standards, including "The IEEE Standard for the S-100 Bus" by Mark Garetz, "Realizing Graphics Standards for Microcomputers" by Fred E. Langhorst and Thomas B. Clarkson III, "A Proposed Floppy-Disk Format Standard" by Chuck Card, and part I of "NAPLPS: A New Standard for Text and Graphics" by Jim Fleming and William Frezza. Also featured this month: Steve Ciarcia tells how to "Build a Handheld LCD Terminal," Jerry Pournelle writes about "Confessions, Pascal Prime, Wescon, and Perfect Writer," and Joel Swank starts our new series on the Commodore VIC-20.


Vol.8 n°3 march 1983

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Features

p.26 Build the ECM-103, an Originate/Answer Modem

[author Steve Ciarcia]

The Texas Instruments TMS99532 forms the heart of a Bell-103-compatible modem.

p.34 The Enhanced VIC-20, Part 2: Adding a 3K-Byte Memory Board

[author Joel Swank]

Supplement the VIC-20's standard SK bytes of RAM and eliminate those annoying "out-of-memory" messages.

p.44 A User's View of COMDEX

[author Jerry Pournelle]

An impressionistic report of one of the largest gatherings of computer dealers and manufacturers.

p.56 The Promise of Perpendicular Magnetic Recording

[author Clark E. Johnson Jr.]

As the Japanese seem to have realized already. PMR represents the next level of recording technology.

p.68 New Developments In Floppy Disks

[author Tom Moran]

New advances in floppy-disk-drive technology spurs intense competition.

p.86 Optical-Memory Media

[author Edward Rothchild]

Some background on how optical disks work, who makes them, and how much data they can hold.

p.110 Will Removable Hard Disks Replace the Floppy?

[author Larry Sarisky]

Improved data-storage technologies may eventually eliminate floppy disks.

p.122 The Winchester Odyssey, From Manufacturer to User

[author Jim Toreson]

A look at drives, OEMs, and the cost of doing business.

p.130 Building a Hard-Disk Interface for an S-100 Bus System, Part 1: Introduction

[author Andrew C. Cruce and Scott A. Alexander]

The first in a series of articles on interfacing a Winchester disk drive to an S-100 bus CP/M microcomputer.

p.152 NAPLPS: A New Standard for Text and Graphics, Part 2: Basic Features

[author Jim Fleming]

How to encode text and simple graphics elements in a standard and efficient manner.

p.218 User's Column: Sage In Bloom, Zeke II, CBIOS Traps, Language Debate Continues

[author Jerry Pournelle]

The·consummate computer user tackles his new writing machine.

p.262 A Faster Binary Search

[author Dr. L. E. Larson]

An important technique results in faster-running applications programs and shorter response times.

p.295 Data Collection with a Microcomputer

[author Dr. Mahlon G. Kelly]

Using a TRS-80 Model I for environmental research saves time and money.

p.310 Build This Memory, Part 1: How to Construct a Low-cost Memory with 4116 Memory Devices

[author Cameron Spitzer]

Take advantage of the low price of the 4116-type memory.

p.331 A Peek Into the IBM PC

[author Tim Field]

An assembly-language program enables an Epson printer to display all 256 characters used by the IBM PC.

p.389 Keywords In a Fuzzy Context

[author Thomas A. Smith]

CBASIC programs for bibliographic search tell you the degree to which various articles meet your requirements.

p.418 ROTERP: An Interpretive Language for Robot Control

[author Gary Liming]

High-level languages may help bridge the gap between artificial intelligence and the home experimenter's robot.

p.436 Using SOUND Arguments for High-Precision RTTY

[author Scott Persson]

How to generate radioteletype audio frequencies from an Atari 800.

p.453 Binary-Format Number Storage on the Apple II Disk

[author David Eyes]

A machine-language routine to read and write binary data to a text file.

Reviews

p.190 MP/M II

[author Stephen Schmitt]

p.247 BYTE Game Grid: Project Nebula

[author Keith Carlson]

p.248 Legionnaire

[author Gregg Williams]

p.251 Omega Race for the VIC-20

[author Stanley J. Wszola]

p.256 Quickcode

[author Adam B. Green]

p.282 Hayes's Stack Smartmodem

[author Norman C. McEntire]

Nucleus

p.6 Editorial: The Software Revolution: Where Will We Store All Those Programs?

p.14 Letters

p.22 BYTE's Bugs

p.307, 450 Programming Quickies: Add Dimensions to Your BASIC; Computing Telescope Parameters with the OSI Superboard II

p.380, 462 System Notes: Circles and Ellipses on the Apple II; Adding a Trace to North Star BASIC

p.474 Event Queue

p.478, 486 BYTE's Bits

p.484 Software Received

p.487 Ask BYTE

p.490 Books Received

p.491 Clubs and Newsletters

p.492 BYTELINES

p.497 What's New?

p.557 Unclassified Ads

p.558 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.559 Reader Service

In This Issue

Sophisticated new operating systems and multitasking software promise to alter significantly the way we use personal computers. Because of the farge memory requirements of the new software, we're sure to see changes for the better in the nature of external storage devices. New technologies for mass storage will become even more critical as the software revolution continues to escalate. As Robert Tinney's cover suggests, personal computers will need a large quantity of high-speed mass storage to hold all the software and other data that we'll generate. Our theme articles address the latest developments in mass storage. Clark E. Johnson Jr. discusses "The Promise of Perpendicular Magnetic Recording;" Tom Moran looks at "New Developments in Floppy Disks," Edward Rothchild writes about "Optical-Memory Media," Larry Sarisky explores the question "Will Removable Hard Disks Replace the Floppy?" Jim Toreson concentrates on "The Winchester Odyssey," and in the first of a three-part series Andrew C. Cruce and Scott A Alexander discuss "Building a Hard-Disk Interface for an S-100 Bus System." Plus we have part 2 of "NAPLPS, A New Standard for Text and Graphics," the second installment in the VIC-20 series, "Adding a 3K-Byte Memory Board," a review of MP/M II from Digital Research, and BYTE's Game Grid. Steve Ciarcia tells you how to "Build the ECM-103, an Originate/Answer Modem," and more.


Vol.8 n°4 april 1983

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Features

p.28 Build an RS-232C Breakout Box

[author Steve Ciarcia]

This diagnostic tool can help you make working serial connections.

p.53 The National Semiconductor NS16000 Microprocessor Family

[author Glenn Leedy]

The 16000 brings to microcomputers features formerly available only on much larger systems.

p.70 Design Philosophy Behind Motorola's MC68000, Part 1

[author Thomas W. Starnes]

This 16-bit processor with multiple 32-bit registers is considered by many experts to be the most powerful, yet easy-to-program microprocessor available.

p.96 The CRT 9007 Video Processor and Controller

[author Brian Cayton and Mort Herman]

Explore the heart of a smart terminal.

p.110 New Japanese Microcomputers

[author Phil Lemmons]

A first look at the new wave of advanced computers.

p.132 Intel's 80186: A 16-Bit Computer on a Chip

[author Tony Zingale]

The 80186 is the first integrated circuit that attacks the cost problem in 16-bit microcomputers.

p.154 The Intel 8087 Numerics Processor Extension

[author R. B. Simington]

This chip lets you perform mathematical operations with 18 decimal digits of accuracy.

p.176 Super Graphics Hardware from NEC

[author Steve Levine]

The NEC 7220 GDC is a new item of sophisticated graphics hardware for microcomputers.

p.190 NAPLPS: A New Standard for Text and Graphics, Part 3: Advanced Features

[author Jim Fleming]

NAPLPS can draw irregular lines, compress repeated code segments, define new text characters, and divide the display screen into separate fields.

p.210 Virtual Memory for Microcomputers

[author Stephen Schmitt]

A brief review of virtual-memory concepts, including an examination of four new memory management chips.

p.242 BYTE West Coast: Hard Choices for Software Houses

[author Phil Lemmons]

Advances in hardware, specifically microprocessors and storage devices, are forcing software houses to make some far-reaching decisions.

p.258 50 and 100 Years Ago in BYTE

The microcomputer industry has made great strides in the past 100 years. Read about what the industry looked like just a short century ago.

p.260 The Enhanced VIC-20, Part 3: Interfacing an MX-80 Printer

[author Joel Swank]

How to connect a parallel-port printer to the VIC-20.

p.304 Building a Hard-Disk Interface for an S-100 Bus System, Part 2: The Hardware

[author Andrew C. Cruce and Scott A. Alexander]

This installment covers choosing the disk drive. the disk controller. and the power supply and building the host computer adapter.

p.324 User's Column: Terminal Solutions, Manual Madness, BASIC Bits, and Info Helpers

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Terminal concerns for Wordstar users, BASIC comments, and a bunch of useful utilities are reviewed by the lord of Chaos Manor.

p.360 Build This Memory, Part 2: Constructing the Memory Card

[author Cameron Spitzer]

Take advantage of the low cost of dynamic memory.

p.385 Modula-2

[author Joel McCormack and Richard Gleaves]

Niklaus Wirth, creator of Pascal, brings us a general-purpose systems implementation language based on modules.

p.398 The Design of an Advanced Logic Simulator

[author Robert M. McDermott]

Macrocircuits and time-saving features make this new simulator easy to use.

p.442 Information Hiding: A Brief Example

[author Gregg Williams]

Consider this helpful alternative to structured programming and modular design.

Review

p.290 Two Ways to Use CP/M-80 on the IBM PC

[author Phil Lemmons]

Nucleus

p.6 Editorial: The New Generation of Human-Engineered Software

p.12 Letters

p.457 BYTELINES

p.461 Clubs and Newsletters

p.463 Ask BYTE

p.466 Event Queue

p.477 Books Received

p.478 BYTE's Bits

p.479 Software Received

p.484 What's New?

p.541 Unclassified Ads

p.542 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.543 Reader Service

In This Issue

Innovations in microprocessor and support chips are closing the gap between the speed and power of minicomputers and that of micros. As Robert Tinney's cover illustrates, the scales are tipped in favor of the l6-bit chips. "The National Semiconductor NS16000 Microprocessor Family" by Glenn Leedy introduces you to the NS16032 processor and its related chips. "Design Philosophy Behind Motorola's MC68000" by Thomas W. Starnes begins a multi-part study of the heart of machines such as the Lisa and the Radio Shack Model 16. In "Intel's 80186." Tony Zingale describes this new chip that combines the functions of the 8086 and several support chips in one device. "The CRT 9007 Video Processor and Controller" by Brian Cayton and Mort Herman discusses a sophisticated chip that greatly simplifies the design of smart terminals. Steve Levine looks at "Super Graphics Hardware from NEC." "The Intel 8087 Numerics Processor Extension" by R. B. Simington describes the theory and use of this coprocessor chip to speed up numeric computations on 8086/8088-based computers. In the first BYTE West Coast report, Phil Lemmons brings us news of the way in which software houses are responding to the new advances in hardware. Steve Ciarcia tells you how to "Build an RS-232C Breakout Box." Plus our regular features.


Vol.8 n°5 may 1983

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Features

p.38 The Osborne Executive and the Executive II

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Adam Osborne's second and third machines come with more standard equipment, offer more options, and have a slightly larger video screen than the Osborne I.

p.49 Build an RS-232C Code-Activated Switch

[author Steve Ciarcia]

This device will let you switch between several peripherals connected to one serial port.

p.59 The Electronic Office

[author Pamela A. Clark]

A short introduction to our theme articles.

p.60 Local Area Networks

[author Harry Saal]

The proliferation of office communication systems makes standardization all the more imperative.

p.104 The Movable Conference

[author Irving A. Lerch]

Computer moderated conferencing is not bound by time and geographic restrictions and is sure to change the structure of the executive business meeting.

p.124 Electronic Publishing: The New Newsletter

[author Arthur S. Bechhoefer]

How a newsletter evolved from its traditional format to a computer-accessed, interactive investment advisory service.

p.154 Achieving Greater White-Collar Productivity In the New Office

[author Randy J. Goldfield]

The conversion to automated tools in an office must address many issues, especially human factors.

p.203 Full Use of the Epson MX-80 Under Wordstar

[author Neil G. Wallace]

How to upgrade Version 3.2 of Wordstar to use more of the capabilities of the Epson MX-BO equipped with Graftrax-Plus.

p.232 Stalking the East-Asian Microcomputer

[author Phil Lemmons]

The author chronicles his five-nation tour and reports on the state of microcomputing in East Asia as revealed by attending six electronics trade shows.

p.236 The Japanese Microcomputer Marketplace

[author Kurt Veggeberg]

A short report on the current state of microcomputing in Japan.

p.242 An Inexpensive letter-Quality Printer

[author Stuart Brown]

If low cost and letter quality are two of your priorities for a printer, consider this Interface between a personal computer and the Olivetti Praxis 30.

p.266 BYTE West Coast: Ferment In Silicon Valley

[author Phil Lemmons]

Profiles of four start-up companies suggest the dynamism of the region and illustrate several ways in which firms get started.

p.272 NAPLPS: A New Standard for Text and Graphics, Part 4: More Advanced Features and Conclusions

[author Jim Fleming]

A standard way to encode color mapping and animation, closing with some predictions on how NAPLPS will be used by personal computers.

p.286 Better Software Manuals

[author Dana Sohr]

The quality of a product's companion documentation could make or break a sale. Tips on whal constitutes a good manual.

p.298 User's Column: Ulterior Motives, Lobo, Buying Your First Computer, JRT Update

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Our resident critic takes his first look at Modula-2.

p.331 The Enhanced VIC-20, Part 4: Connecting Serial RS-232C Peripherals to the VIC's TTL Port

[author Joel Swank]

The last in this VIC series discusses port connections.

p.342 Design Philosophy Behind Motorola's MC68000, Part 2: Data-movement, Arithmetic, and logic Instructions

[author Thomas W. Starnes]

A look at the capablillies of the MC68000's instruction set.

p.368 Building a Hard-Disk Interface for an S-100 System, Part 3: Software

[author Andrew C. Cruce and Scott A. Alexander]

How to alter the CP/M operating system so that it will accommodate a Winchester disk drive and controller.

p.402 Using IBM's Marvelous Keyboard

[author David B. Glasco and Murray Sargent III]

It's a fairly simple procedure to change IBM's keyboard to the Dvorak layout, or even use the keyboard with other computers and software.

p.418 Strongly Typed Languages

[author Earl E. McCoy]

Ada, Pascal, and other new languages let you define your own data types.

p.438 The Ins and Outs of the TRS-BO Color Computer

[author Colin J. Stearman]

Find out how the Color Computer interfaces with the outside world.

p.452 A Conceptual Approach to Real-Time Programming

[author Craig R. Wyss]

You can use various real-time programming techniques to turn a lazy computer into a real worker.

p.474 Regression Fitting to Economic Indexes

[author Dr. John R. Merrill]

An Apple II program can help determine base rates of innation through analysis of the Consumer Price Index.

p.482 Sorting Algorithms for Microcomputers

[author Terry Barron and George Diehr]

Programmer ingenuity and search of the existing literature can significantly improve sort performance.

Reviews

p.14 Little Big Computer, The TRS-80 Model 100 Portable Computer

[author Rich Malloy]

p.82 The Fortune 32:16 Business Computer

[author Steven H. Barry]

p.134 What a Concept! A View of the Corvus Computer

[author Curtis Feigel]

p.176 Word Tools for the IBM Personal Computer

[author Richard S. Shuford]

p.220 A Comparison of Five Database Management Programs

[author Jack L. Abbott]

p.263 Painter Power

[author Chris Pappas and William H. Murray]

p.426 Solarsoft

[author Winslow H. Fuller]

Nucleus

p.6 Editorial: Disenchantment with Detroit

p.8 Letters

p.326 Book Review: Microprocessor Systems, Interfacing and Applications

p.494 BYTE LINES

p.499 Event Queue

p.509 Software Received

p.51 3 Books Received

p.515 Ask BYTE

p.521 Clubs and Newsletters

p.524 What's New?

p.589 Unclassified Ads

p.590 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.591 Reader Service

In This Issue

The complete and integrated electronic office is still a few years away, Yet with each new product that computerizes an individual task or an entire procedure, we move one step closer to the day when paper shuffling is just a memory, Someday, as Robert Tinney suggests in his cover painting, workers at all levels will electronically communicate with the aid of the mighty microprocessor, In "Local Area Networks" Harry Saal discusses the need for standardizing communication protocols for physically separated equipment, such as personal computers, mainframes, printers, and disk drives, Steven Barry describes "The Fortune 32:16 Business Computer," a multiuser, multitasking system that runs enhanced Unix, In "The Movable Conference" Irving A. Lerch reports on computer-moderated conferencing, and in a companion piece, "Electronic Publishing: The New Newsletter," Arthur S, Bechhoefer talks about how a traditional newsletter became a computer-accessed interactive investment advisory service, We have reviews of Radio Shack's new Model 100 portable computer and of two versions of a new computer from Osborne, the Executive and the Executive II. In "Stalking the East-Asian Microcomputer," Phil Lemmons chronicles his five-nation tour of the Far East, Steve Ciarcia's project is to "Build an RS-232C Code-Activated Switch," Plus our regular features and more reviews,


Vol.8 n°6 june 1983

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Themes

p.52 16-Bit Designs

[author Phil Lemmons]

Powerful 16-bit microprocessors coupled with greater memory capacity and, advanced memory-management techniques promise to elevate the micro to new levels of power and speed. And the winners are the users. In our theme articles you'll read about what's new in the 16-bit arena.

p.54 Sunrise Systems

[author Bruce Roberts]

This Texas-based startup company produces portable 8- and 16-bit microcomputer systems that are labeled and marketed by OEMs.

p.74 The Gavilan Mobile Computer

[author Phil Lemmons]

Lightweight powerful, and portable, this battery-powered 16-bit computer can go anywhere. And its optional printer fits in a standard-size briefcase right along with the computer.

p.96 Digital's Professional 300 Series

[author Wesley Melling]

Owning a 325 or 350 is almost like having a personal minicomputer. They both share the PDP-11 instruction set and memory management and provide about 90 percent of the throughput of a PDP-11/24.

p.104 A DEC on Every Desk?

[author John J. Snyder]

A look at Digital Equipment Corporation's representatives in the microcomputer world.

p.110 Tight Squeeze: The HP Series 200 Model 16

[author John Monahan]

How Hewlett-Packard crammed a powerful 16-bit microcomputer into one square foot of desk space.

p.128 Texas Instruments' 99/2 Basic Computer

[author Harry Littlejohn and Mark Jander]

Software compatible with the 99/4A. this 16-bit, less-than-$100 machine makes a good home computer.

p.138 Implementing Minicomputer Capabilities In a Desktop Microcomputer

[author Colin Nayler]

Multiple users, Xenix, and local-area networks characterize the Altos 586.

p.150 A Machine for All Processors: The Fujitsu Model 16s

[author Wayne Clingingsmith]

Its plug-in processors allow the Model 16s to run a variety of operating systems and applications programs.

p.168 The Pronto Series 16

[author Skip Hansen]

An explanation of the design philosophy behind this business-oriented Intel-80186 based microcomputer.

p.188 A Sleek Import: The Docutel/Olivetti M20

[author Sergio Mello-Grand]

A personal computer that marches to the beat of a different drummer-the Z8000.

p.194 Modular Architecture

[author Sudha Kavuru]

Some insights into designing a modular computer around the IBM Personal Computer.

p.208 Digital Research's DR Logo

[author Gary Kildall and David Thornburg]

This userfriendly language comes of age.

p.230 An Inside Look at MS-DOS

[author Tim Paterson]

The history of and design decisions behind MS-DOS, how it works, and where it's going.

p.256 BYTE West Coast: A Guided Tour of Visi On

[author Phil Lemmons]

Visicorp's Bill Coleman discusses in detail the development workings, and operation of Visi On, the company's new operating environment.

Features

p.35 Use ADPCM for Highly Intelligible Speech Synthesis

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Integrated circuits from Oki Semiconductor compress digitized speech data efficiently.

p.282 NEC PC-8201

[author Stan Wszola]

Yet another portable computer vies for a place in the executive briefcase.

p.306 The User Goes to the Faire

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Our redoubtable critic reports on his journey from Chaos Manor to the Eighth West Coast Computer Faire.

p.339 Design Philosophy Behind Motorola's MC68000, Part 3: Advanced lnstructions

[author Thomas W. Starnes]

Special MC68000 instructions allow programmers to write complicated code quickly and compactly.

p.352 The Bazeries Cylinder

[author Rinaldo F. Prisco]

How to create ciphertext using methods based on the Bazeries Cylinder's time-proven cryptographic principles.

p.387 AVL Trees

[author W. D. Maurer]

Introducing a scheme for searching and updating sorted data efficiently.

p.395 Build a Simple Light Pen for the Apple II

[author David J. Lilja]

Avoid complex hardware by using software strategically.

p.411 User's Column: Zenith Z-100, Epson QX-10, Software Licensing, and the Software Piracy Problem

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Our intrepid columnist shoots from the hip and takes a little flak.

p.450 The 8086-An Architecture for the Future, Part 1: Introduction and Glossary

[author Stephen A. Heywood]

The advanced 8086 microprocessor overcomes the limitations of previous designs.

Reviews

p.288 HMS3264 EPROM Programmer

[author Marvin L. DeJong]

This program package lets an Apple II handle the programming tasks for a variety of software-development tasks.

p.298 Electrohome Supercolor Board and Color Monitor

[author Jon N. Swanson]

A color-graphics display system for the Apple II.

Nucleus

p.4 Editorial: High-Tech Morrill Act

p.7 MICROBYTES

p.10 Letters

p.364 Programming Quickies: Novel Methods of Integer Multiplication and Division

p.379 Technical Forum: Random Numbers from an All-Digital Generator

p.446 Book Review: 6502 Assembly-Language Subroutines

p.458 Clubs and Newsletters

p.462 Ask BYTE

p.466 Software Received

p.470 Event Queue

p.479 Books Received

p.482 What's New?

p.547 Unclassified Ads

p.542 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.543 Reader Service


Vol.8 n°7 july 1983

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Themes

p.40 Videotex Brings the World to Your Doorstep

[author Rich Malloy]

Essentially an enhancement of existing technologies, videotex will bring into your home or place of business a host of services and conveniences, such as shopping and banking. Videotex's potential is enormous, but a few problems must be worked out before it reaches the mass market. Our theme articles address some of these problems and look at the possibilities videotex presents.

p.42 Videotex: Science Fiction or Reality?

[author Darby Miller]

An overview of the fledgling videotex industry.

p.60 Prestel: The Basis of an Evolving Videotex System

[author Graham Hudson]

The pioneering videotex system is flexible enough to adopt anticipated technological advances.

p.82 NAPLPS Standard Graphics and the Microcomputer

[author Leo Lax and Mark Olson]

The authors discuss incentives for adopting the NAPLPS standard and what NAPLPS means for microcomputer users.

p.96 Privacy and Videotex Systems

[author Richard M. Neustadt]

The potential for abusing personal information is that much greater with two-way systems.

p.104 Graphics Artistry On Line

[author Martin Nisenholtz]

The Telidon videotex workshop from the National Endowment for the Arts explores a new medium for artistic expression.

p.114 Commentary: Personal Computers and Videotex

[author Rich Malloy]

The different worlds of personal computers and videotex complement each other in exciting ways.

Features

p.26 Build the RTC-4 Real-Time Controller

[author Steve Ciarcia]

A 4-bit single-chip microcomputer from Texas Instruments comes preprogrammed for timed automatic control.

p.130 The Microsoft Mouse

[author Chris Peters]

Someone let the mouse out of the bag.

p.147 Benchmarking the lntel 8086 and 8088

[author Gregg Williams]

The 8086 is faster than the 8088, but there's more than execution speed to consider when selecting a computer.

p.166 Visi On's Interface Design

[author Dr. George Woodmansee]

Design philosophy behind Visicorp's integrated software.

p.186 Voice Lab, Part 1: A System for Digital Speech Synthesis and Analysis

[author John E. Hoot]

Modular routines make this speech synthesis and a [lalysis system useful for application programming and experimentation.

p.210 Parallel I/O Ports for H-89 Computers

[author Ronald La Claustra]

You can add 64 input/output ports plus a Centronics-type printer interface to your Heath-/Zenith-89 computer.

p.266 The Touch of Color

[author David M. Dacus]

Add a new, inexpensive keyboard to Radio Shack's Color Computer.

p.286 BYTE West Coast: Improving the User Interface at Digital Research

[author Phil Lemmons and Barbara Robertson]

Digital Research's vice-president of Commercial Systems Divison, Gordon Eubanks, describes three different general approaches that his company is taking to improve the user interface.

p.299 The 8086-An Architecture for the Future, Part 2: Instruction Set

[author Stephen A. Heywood]

The 8086 lets you easily construct compact programs.

p.323 User's Column: Interstellar Drives, Osborne Accessories, DEDICATE/32, and Death Valley

[author Jerry Pournelle]

A medley of miscellanea from our microcomputer maven.

p.398 The 8088 Connection

[author Dan Rollins]

Interfacing IBM PC BASIC to machine language programs.

p.417 Squeezing Memory from the Apple with Pascal

[author Jill David]

Using Apple Pascal's Segmentation facilities and a few other techniques, you can write bigger programs than you might have thought possible.

p.428 Control Your Environment with the Atarl 400/800

[author David Alan Hayes]

A combination of hardware and software enables your computer to monitor and influence your surroundings.

p.460 The Practical EEPROM

[author Louis Wheeler]

For less than the price of an EPROM eraser, you can buy an EEPROM that doesn't need one.

p.484 Add High-Level Logical Structure to Your FORTH Assembler

[author Victor Joseph Grazi]

Some extensions to your FORTH assembler package can make your assembly-language programs more readable and easier to write.

Reviews

p.226 BUBDISK

[author Peter Callamaras]

A bubble-memory device gives the Apple II 128K bytes of nonvolatile memory.

p.232 Commodore 64

[author Stan Wszola]

Sprite graphics, good sound, and a $595 price tag make Commodore's new computer a versatile machine.

p.248 The Strobe Plotting System

[author Jack L. Bishop]

A low-cost plotter for graphs and charts.

p.360 CP/M Plus

[author Mark Dahmke]

This new disk operating system is faster and more efficient than CP/M.

p.388 Quadram Corporation's MX700

[author Curtis P. Feigel]

This video terminal lets you view the equivalent of two typewritten pages, side by side, on a single screen.

p.470 Alcor Pascal and Advanced Development Package

[author Rowland Archer Jr.]

This package runs on the TRS-80 Models I and III and under CP/M.

Nucleus

p.4 Editorial: A Statement of Purpose

p.7 MICROBYTES

p.10 Letters

p.356 BYTE Game Contest #2: The Winners

p.440 Programming Quickies: Redefining the Apple Keyboard

p.450 Book Review: The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence. Volume I

p.494 Clubs and Newsletters

p.498 Ask BYTE

p.503 Books Received

p.505 Software Received

p.510 Event Queue

p.518 What's New?

p.573 Unclassified Ads

p.574 BOMB. BOMB Results

p.575 Reader Service


Vol.8 n°8 august 1983

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Themes

p.46 The C Language

[author Bruce Roberts]

Designed to make programs portable, fast, and compact. C is the language of choice for many programmers. This month's theme articles survey the reasons why.

p.48 The C Language and Models for Systems Programming

[author Stephen C. Johnson and Brian W. Kernighan]

A happy medium between low- and high-level languages, C provides a model for efficient programming.

p.64 A C Language Primer, Part 1: Constructs and Conventions

[author James Joyce]

A guided tour through Cs keywords and functions.

p.82 Comparing C Compilers for CP/M-86

[author Jerry Houston, Jim Brodrick, and Les Kent]

A look at which compilers for CP/M-86 systems are best suited to particular purposes, most cost-effective, and easiest to use.

p.110 Five C Compilers for CP/M-80

[author Christopher O. Kern]

How C compilers for the CP/M-80 operating system stack up.

p.134 Nine C Compilers for the IBM PC

[author Ralph A. Phraner]

A discriminating look at the C compilers available for this lucrative software market.

p.172 Managing Software Development with C

[author Jason Linhart]

Choosing a good programming environment can affect programming ease and code quality more than you might imagine.

p.186 The Unix Tutorial, Part 1: An Introduction to Features and Facilities

[author David Fiedler]

An overview of Bell Laboratories' Unix operating system and its toolbox of utilities.

p.212 A Survey of C and Unix Resources

[author Walter Zintz]

A guide to materials, courses, and on-line instruction in C.

p.222 What Is a Software Tool?

[author Rebecca Thomas]

How to use Unix and C to design programs that in turn will help you to design other programs.

p.243 The Unix C Compiler in a CP/M Environment

[author Matthew Halfant]

A look at how compatible the standard C compiler is when it's used under CP/M.

p.268 Annotated C: A Bibliography of the C Language

[author Terry A. Ward]

Where to find books, articles, and reviews on C. Features

p.36 Build a Power-Line Carrier-Current Modem

[author Steve Ciarcia]

Now your computer can communicate over electrical power wiring.

p.286 Chisel Your Code with a Profiler

[author Dennis Leas and Paul Wintz]

Execute compiler programs at the rate of assembly-language programs, but at a fraction of the effort and cost.

p.292 A New Shape Subroutine for the Apple

[author Richard T. Simoni Jr.]

A flicker-free animation scheme for the Apple II.

p.312 The Debate Goes On ...

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Jerry looks at programming languages, from APL to Modula-2.

p.331 The IBM PC and the Intel 8087 Coprocessor, Part 1: Overview and Floating-Point Assembly-Language Support

[author Tim Field]

This software utility makes it easy to add powerful floating-point, integer, and BCD arithmetic operations from assembly language.

p.386 Curious Coordinates for Computer Graphics

[author Roger Millikan]

Cartesian coordinates are not always the best choice for all plotting tasks.

p.401 BYTE West Coast: The Future of Software Design

[author William Gates]

Microsoft's chairman of the board analyzes today's software issues and predicts the directions software will take tomorrow.

p.404 The 8086-An Architecture for the Future, Part 3: Instruction Set Continued

[author Stephen A. Heywood]

In the last article of this series, the author discusses program transfers, string manipulations, and processor-control instructions.

p.434 User's Column: Epson QX-10, Zenith Z-29, CP/M-68K, and More

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Our resident user reviews new products and answers some old mail.

p.456 Voice Lab, Part 2, Menu-Driven Routines for Digital Speech Synthesis and Analysis

[author John E. Hoot]

Modular routines are well suited to speech synthesis and analysis.

p.477 Help In Apple III Pascal

[author AI Evans]

Adding on-line instructions that will come to your aid anywhere in application software.

NUCLEUS

p.4 Editorial: DEC IBM, and Athena

p.7 MICROBYTES

p.10 Letters

p.378 Programming Quickie: A Cross-Reference Utility for IBM PC BASIC

p.394 Technical Forum: A Gauss-Jordan Elimination Method Program

p.430 Book Reviews: CBASIC User Guide : An Assembly Language Course

p.483 Books Received

p.484 Ask BYTE

p.490 Clubs and Newsletters

p.492 Software Received

p.495 Event Queue

p.503 What's New?

p.572 Unclassified Ads

p.574 BOMB, BOMB Results

p.575 Reader Service


Vol.8 n°9 september 1983

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Themes

p.33 Computing on the Run

[author Stanley J. Wszola]

Incorporating new design concepts, innovative hardware, and easy-to-use software, portable computers are proof that you can take it with you. This month's theme articles and reviews explore the issues that affect the portable marketplace, the advances in technology, and some of the latest models.

p.34 How to Choose a Portable

[author Stanley J. Wszola]

You're sure you want one, but which one? With at least 50 models to choose from, deciding on a portable is no easy matter. This article and the accompanying computer comparison table will help you make an informed choice.

p.51 High-IQ Modems

[author Stephen Durham]

The more intelligent the modem, the more it can disappear into the background of your computer system and provide unattended communications capability

p.66 Developing a Truly Portable Visicalc

[author William T. Johnson]

Hewlett-Packard's adaptation of Visicorp's popular electronic-spreadsheet program for its HP-7S portable computer doesn't sacrifice the program's compatibility with other Visicalc products.

p.80 The Gavilan - A Full-Function Portable Computer

[author F. John Zepecki]

The machine's designer details the evolution of this completely self-contained system with integrated software.

p.94 Inside CMOS Technology

[author Martin B. Pawloski, Tony Moroyan, and Joe Altnether]

An overview of how complementary metal-oxide semiconductor memory chips are manufactured and a look at three of them - Intel's 80C51, National Semiconductor's NSC800, and CMOS dynamic RAM.

p.127 The Challenge of Hard-Disk Portability

[author David A. Sutton]

How one hard-disk-drive manufacturer worked around the problems of designing a removable hard disk.

p.139 The Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 100

[author Mahlon G. Kelly]

This powerful portable with its built-in, well-integrated software is just what the author ordered.

p.166 The New Microfloppy Standards

[author Thomas Jarrett]

From the beginning, size has been a bone of contention among microfloppy-disk manufacturers. In today's marketplace, the 3½-inch disk has emerged as the de facto standard.

Reviews

p.178 The HP-75 Portable Computer

[author Rowland Archer Jr.]

Hewlett-Packard's entry into the mid-priced portable computer fray offers powerful real-time scheduling capabilities

p.188 The Access Portable Computer

[author Terry Kepner]

This portable comes with a host of software and practically all the hardware you'll ever need.

p.193 Epson's HX-20 and Texas Instruments' CC-40

[author David Ramsey]

The HX-20 offers an integrated microcassette and printer. So far, the CC-40 doesn't fulfill its potential; it lacks peripherals and software.

p.208 The Pied Piper Portable Computer

[author Seth P. Bates]

Because it does not include a monitor, this low-cost Z80 computer makes lightweight portability possible.

p.212 The Kaypro II

[author Roger Fager and John Bohr]

A complete system that offers dependable hardware and extensive software, the Kaypro II is a practical solution for many applications.

p.226 The Corona Portable

[author Rich Malloy]

This reasonably priced system with its eye-catching display offers stiff competition to other IBM PC-compatible machines.

Features

p.20 Build the Micro D-Cam Solid-State Video Camera, Part I: The IS32 Optic RAM and the Micro D-Cam Hardware

[author Steve Ciarcia]

A 64K-bit dynamic RAM chip is the visual sensor in this digital image camera.

p.230 A Report on the Consumer Electronics Show

[author Phil Lemmons]

Coleco's Adam dominated the summer CES in Chicago, but that wasn't all the exhibition offered. Our West Coast Bureau Chief surveyed the scene.

p.233 The Next Five Years In Microcomputers

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Our prescient user forecasts the trends that will influence the microcomputer industry over the next five years.

p.246 The Second BYTE Games Contest Winners

[author Gregg Williams]

This year's competition turned up five outstanding diversions: a tank-versus-tank battle, an arcade-style chase that takes place on a moving·barbecue grill, a simulated juggling game, a maze-and-dots game, and a survival strategy challenge.

p.250 Update on Personal Computing In Japan

[author Phil Lemmons]

At the Japan Microcomputer Show '83 in Tokyo, notebook-size and hand-held computers were the center of attraction.

p.257 The Unix Tutorial, Part 2: Unix as an Applications-Programs Base

[author David Fiedler]

Make Unix more useful from both a user-interface and an applications perspective.

p.283 BYTE West Coast: Just Rewards for Programmers

[author Barbara Robertson]

Some programmers have superstar status. while others crank out code for a weekly paycheck. What's an enterprising programmer to do? .

p.289 A C Language Primer, Part 2: Tool Building In C

[author James Joyce]

In this second and finat part, the author explains how code can be packaged into a general-purpose function and employed in solving more than one problem.

p.307 User's Column: Eagles, Text Editors, New Compliers, and Much More

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Jerry turns his eye to eclectic subjects.

p.331 The IBM PC and the Intel 8087 Coprocessor, Part 2: Interfacing to IBM Pascal

[author Tim Field]

The 8087 Numeric Data Processor can speed up most Pascal programs by a factor of three.

p.356 Echonet, Part 1: A Flexible Programming System

[author C. Bradford Barber]

This interactive system lets you link programs in countless combinations to create larger, more complex programs.

p.376 Data File Management Methods

[author Robert B. Johnson]

A simple data file management system will help you organize your files with minimal maintenance.

p.385 An Introduction to Layered Protocols

[author Michael Witt]

Once you understand layered protocols, you can evaluate network architectures of data-communications products.

p.411 Does Your Printer Work with Wordstar?

[author Charles Stephenson]

How to get around the compatibility problems that arise from using the popular word-processing program with your IBM Pc.

p.419 In-Circuit Emulation for the Apple II Computer

[author John D. Ferguson]

Adding a simple circuit converts your Apple into a host for testing a target system's hardware and software.

p.445 Add Multiple Tasks to Your Communication and Control Program

[author Jerry Holter]

By using a compact set of routines called a multitask kernel, you can handle several tasks concurrently.

p.549 An Operations Research Scheduling Program

[author Walter A. Stark Jr. and Richard A. Reid]

A scheduling algorithm can help you determine the best sequence for processing a set of disparate tasks.

Nucleus

p.4 Editorial: The FAA and Portables

p.7 MICROBYTES

p.10 Letters

p.403 Programming Quickie: Cipher via Computer: The One-time Pad

p.480 User to User

p.486, 494 Book Reviews: The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence. Volume 2; Starting FORTH

p.496 Books Received

p.500 Clubs and Newsletters

p.504 Software Received

p.519 Ask BYTE

p.526 Event Oueue

p.581 What's New?

p.653 Unclassified Ads

p.654 BYTE's Ongoing Monitor Box. BOMB Results

p.655 Reader Service


Vol.8 n°10 october 1983

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Cover Story

p.36 Product Preview: The HP 150

[author Phil Lemmons and Barbara Robertson]

"Magic" is the code name for Hewlett-Packard's latest personal computer project-and it fits. In this preview, we take a look at the hardware and software that make the machine so special.

p.51 An Interview: The HP 150's Design-team Leaders

[author Phil Lemmons and Barbara Robertson]

Jim Sutton and John Lee talk about the development of the HP 150.

Columns

p.61 Build the Micro D-Cam Solid-State Video Camera, Part 2: Computer Interfaces and Control Software

[author Steve Ciarcia]

In this final article in the series, you'll learn how to attach the camera to the expansion buses of the Apple II Plus and the IBM PC and how the camera is programmed to work.

p.94 BYTE West Coast: Shaping Consumer Software

[author Phil Lemmons and Barbara Robertson]

In an interwiew, Trip Hawkins, president of Electronic Arts, discusses the criteria he uses to judge software and explains his view of the programmer as artist.

p.101 User's Column: New Computers, Boards, Languages, and Other Tidbits

[author Jerry Pournelle]

A medical diagnosis-by-computer program is the star attraction this month.

Themes

p.130 The Unix Operating System

[author Bruce Roberts]

The multiuser, multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories offers powers and abilities far beyond those of normal microcomputer operating systems. Our theme articles explore the reasons behind Unix's popularity

p.132 The Unix Tutorial, Part 3: Unix In the Microcomputer Marketplace

[author David Fiedler]

The final article in th is series explains the differences between various Unix versions and between true Unix systems, work-alikes, and look-alikes.

p.160 Unix and the Standardization of Small Computer Systems

[author Jean L. Yates]

The Unix operating system and the C language will be major factors in the standardization of file handling and compatibility across small systems and mainframes.

p.170 A Tour Through the Unix File System

[author James Joyce]

A devoted Unix user surveys points of interest in Unix's hierarchy of files.

p.181 The Unix Shell

[author Stephen R. Bourne]

The author of the standard Unix shell presents the program that interprets users' commands and is a programming language in its own right.

p.209 Unix as an Application Environment

[author Mark Krieger and Fred Pack]

Unix is the operating system of choice for many programmers because it offers portability, communications capability, a rich set of utilities, and a large body of applications.

p.219 Usenet: A Bulletin Board for Unix Users

[author Sandra L. Emerson]

A look at a network of more than 500 Unix systems and its various and sundry uses.

p.241 The Unix Writer's Workbench Software

[author Lorinda L. Cherry and Nina H. Macdonald]

This applications package can improve your writing by analyzing rough drafts and suggesting improvements.

p.253 Typesetting on the Unix System

[author Bill Tuthill]

With troff. you can typeset manuscripts, tables, and equations with Unix.

p.266 Moving Unix to New Machines

[author Michael Tilson]

Unix is highly portable, but transporting a large body of software can present problems.

Reviews

p.280 The NEC Advanced Personal Computer

[author David B. Suits]

The author met the microcomputer of his dreams in the form of high-resolution graphics, color, and 16-bit performance.

p.292 Radio Shack's TRS-80 Model 4

[author Rowland Archer Jr.]

Offering a host of new features and a new, improved price tag, the Model 4 is proof that large corporations can be responsive to the needs of their customers.

p.306 The Morrow Micro Decision

[author Tom Wadlow]

A review of the company's first effort at a single-board, stand-alone personal computer.

p.316 The Microneye

[author Chris Wieland]

Until now, the cost of adding vision to a computer has been out of reach for most users. Now there's the Microneye solid-state camera, which interfaces easily with a variety of popular microcomputers.

p.324 The M68000 Educational Computer Board

[author Robert W. Floyd]

For $495, you can get acquainted with a 68000-based single-board computer with 32K bytes of RAM and what the author says may be the best monitor program in RAM ever developed.

p.341 Fancy Font

[author Paul E. Hoffman]

With this easy-to-use program and an Epson printer, you can design your own type styles.

p.428 More Unix-style Software Tools for CP/M

[author Christopher O. Kern]

The Microtools package includes the most popular utilities available for the Unix operating system.

Features

p.350 Photographic Animation of Microcomputer Graphics

[author Peter Cann]

By interfacing a movie camera to a computer, you can achieve the animation quality of commercial movies or television.

p.366 The Fourth National Computer Graphics Association Conference

[author Alexander Pournelle]

This year's NCGA conference offered improved graphics hardware, but graphics software still leaves a lot to be desired.

p.384 Echonet, Part 2: The Compiler

[author C. Bradford Barber]

In the conclusion of this series, the author explains how his system produces relocatable code from English-like programs.

p.398 Computer Crime: A Growing Threat

[author Collen Gillard and Jim Smith]

The machine that provides businesses with a competitive edge is also placing them at the mercy of a new type of lawbreaker the computer criminal. Fortunately there are ways to prevent unauthorized computer access.

p.439 Mainframe Graphics on a Microcomputer

[author Mahlon Kelly]

If you have a smart terminal program and a microcomputer capable of high-resolution graphics, you can display complex graphics.

p.447 Talker

[author Heyward S. Williams]

Writing a talking program is simple, says the author, if you can use PRINT and INPUT statements to automatically transfer information to a speech synthesizer.

p.480 Bitmaps Speed Data-handling Tasks

[author Eric Sohr]

Strings of ones and zeros can make short work of ordered-list comparisons and file searches.

p.499 Simplified Program Interfacing

[author Raymond Irvine]

A programming technique based on jump and data tables simplifies the interface between two programs when at least one of them has fixed entry points and data addresses.

Nucleus

p.4 Editorial: A Challenge to Education

p.7 MICROBYTES

p.12 Letters

p.540 User to User

p.548 Ask BYTE

p.556 Software Received and BOMB Results

p.566 Clubs and Newsletters

p.570 Books Received

p.574 Event Queue

p.586 What's New?

p.669 Unclassified

p.669 BYTE's Ongoing Monitor Box

p.672 Reader's Service


Vol.8 n°11 november 1983

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Columns

p.36 Build the H-Com Handicapped Communicator

[author Steve Ciarcia]

The Intel 8748 is the basis for a scanning communicator that users can control with just one switch.

p.52 BYTE West Coast: California Hardware

[author Barbara Robertson]

A look at four new products, from a portable computer to bubble-memory boards.

p.65 User's Column: The Latest from Chaos Manor

[author Jerry Pournelle]

This month's potpourri begins with a discussion of disk formats.

Themes

p.76 Inside the IBM PC

[author Gregg Williams]

IBM's famed Personal Computer spawned the largest group of third-party vendors the microcomputer industry has ever seen and single-handedly enabled microcomputers to assume a greater percentage of the world's computational tasks. This month's theme articles explore the ubiquitous machine from a·wide variety of angles.

p.78 IBM PCs Do the Unexpected

[author Steven S. Ross]

The IBM PC can conquer a fascinating array of scientific, business, and educational tasks.

p.88 IBM's Estridge

[author Lawrence J. Curran and Richard S. Shuford]

In an interview with BYTE's editors, the president of IBM's Entry Systems Division talks about standards, the PCs simplicity, and a desire not to be different.

p.99 Enhancing Screen Displays for the IBM PC

[author Tim Field]

With a program called Screen, you can take full advantage of the capabilities of both monochrome and color displays and adapt them to your own needs:

p.121 POKEing Around in the IBM PC, Part 1: Accessing System and Hardware Facilities

[author Hugh R. Howson]

How to use BASICs PEEK and POKE commands to realize the speed and flexibility of machine-language code without sacrificing the convenience of a high-level language.

p.135 Could 1,000,000 IBM PC Users Be Wrong?

[author Frank Gens and Chris Christiansen]

Everyone knows the IBM PC has had a profound effect on the personal computer market. But what direction will it take in the future?

p.144 Big Blue Goes Japanese

[author Richard Willis]

The capabilities of IBM Japan's new 5550 Multistation will make it a formidable competitor in the red-hot Japanese market.

p.168 Expanding on the IBM PC

[author Mark J. Welch]

A survey of expansion boards including 17 fact-filled tables.

p.188 lnstallable Device Drivers for PC-DOS 2.0

[author Tim Field]

A look at the importance of device drivers and how they work with the PC.

p.199 A Communications Package for the IBM PC

[author Richard Moore and Michael Geary]

How one company's communications software package evolved as a result of user feedback.

p.211 A Graphics Editor for the IBM PC

[author Charles B. Duff]

A graphics editor called GLYPHE makes drawing with the PCs graphics characters fun as well as efficient.

p.232 Comparing the IBM PC and the TI PC

[author Bobbi Bullard]

They may look alike but each of these computers has its own special features.

p.247 Technical Aspects of IBM PC Compatibility

[author Charlie Montague, Dave Howse, Bob Mikkelsen, Don Rein, and Dick Mathews]

The IBM PCs success paved the way for IBM PC-compatible computers. But it takes more than an 8088 board to create a plug-compatible machine. The authors explain why.

p.254 The Making of the IBM PC

[author Brian Camenker]

The success of the 70-year-old International Business Machines Corporation can be explained in one word: marketing.

p.257 Concurrent CP/M

[author Joe Guzaitis]

This operating system efficiently uses computer and operator resources.

p.272 The IBM PC Meets Ethernet

[author Larry Birenbaum]

By adopting Ethernet technology IBM PCs can share peripherals and information

p.285 MS-DOS 2.0: An Enhanced 16-bit Operating System

[author Chris Larson]

The most recent version of Microsoft's popular single-user operating system offers installable device drivers. Xenix compatibility, and background tasking.

Reviews

p.294 The IBM PC XT and DOS 2.0

[author Rowland Archer Jr.]

With the XT, IBM took a conservative developmental step; PC-DOS 2.0, on the other hand, took more of a leap.

p.308 The Corona PC

[author Rich Malloy]

Compatible with the IBM PC, the Corona PC features an 8088 microprocessor, 128K bytes of memory, a high-quality display and the Multimate word-processing program.

p.328 A Look at the HP Series 200 Model 16

[author Berry Kercheval]

Hewlett-Packard's 68000-based microcomputer offers a lot of power in a small package.

p.352 Three Generations of Business Charts for the IBM PC

[author Jack Bishop]

Reviews of Graphics Generator from Robert J Brady Co., Chartmaster from Decision Resources and Business Graphics from Business and P rofessional Software Inc.

p.370 A Versatile IBM PC Word Tool: Sorcim's Superwrlter

[author Richard S. Shuford]

A powerful and easy-to-use word-processing program. Superwriter provides many functions that are useful in a business environment.

Features

p.394 Japan and the Fifth Generation

[author Phil Lemmons]

A look at Japan's efforts to develop artificial intelligence.

p.402 Speech Images on the IBM PC

[author A.J. Cote Jr.]

With an experimental speech input card, the IBM PC can plot sounds that can prove useful as speech aids for the deaf.

p.410 Lmodem: A Small Remote-Communication Program

[author David D. Clark]

Written in the BDS version of the C programming language, the Lmodem program provides terminal emulation, text capture, and transfer of files.

p.430 The Software Tools: Unix Capabilities on Non-Unix Systems

[author Deborah K. Scherrer, Philip H. Scherrer, Thomas H. Strong, and Samuel J. Penny]

This package includes utility programs, a command interpreter, and a large programming library

p.449 Double the Apple II's Color Choices

[author Robert H. Sturges Jr.]

How to get your Apple II to provide a wide selection of colors without sacrificing resolution.

p.467 A Character Editor for the IBM PC

[author Raymond A. Diedrichs]

A BASIC program called Font lets you substitute custom symbols for a portion of the computer's standard character set.

p.560 Statistical Programs for Microcomputers

[author Peter A. Lachenbruch]

Test the accuracy of statistical microcomputer software with these tools.

Nucleus

p.4 Editorial: Growth vs Quality

p.7 MICROBYTES

p.12 Letters

p.481, 502, 518, 524, 552 Programming Quickies

p.487, 494, 507 Technical Forums

p.532, 538, 544 Book Reviews

p.575 User to User

p.591 Clubs and Newsletters

p.596 Ask BYTE

p.610 Software Received

p.622 Event Queue

p.640 Books Received

p.646 What's New?

p.717 Unclassified

p.718 BYTE's Ongoing Monitor Box and BOMB Results

p.719 Reader's Service


Vol.8 n°12 december 1983

byte_1983_12.jpg

byte_1983_12_index.jpg

byte_1983_12_index2.jpg

Columns

p.36 Keep Power-Line Pollution Out of Your Computer

[author Steve Ciarcia]

When lightning struck his home and did $3000 worth of damage, Ciarcia decided to strike back with this month's Circuit Cellar project

p.48 BYTE West Coast: Microsoft Windows

[author Phil Lemmons]

Microsoft Windows lets you test the effectiveness of the desktop metaphor and the mouse.

p.59 User's Column: Buddy, Can You Spare a Door Latch?

[author Jerry Pournelle]

What to do when your disk-drive door is on the fritz and other comedies of errors at Chaos Manor.

Themes

p.100 Easy Software

[author Phil Lemmons]

Making software easy to use is simpler to say than to do. This month's theme articles explore a variety of approaches to user-interface technology and sample programmers' attempts at making software do more with less effort

p.103 An Introduction to Integrated Software

[author Dash Chang]

Concurrency, shared technology, and functional integration are three ways of integrating software.

p.113 Presentation and Form in User-Interface Architecture

[author John M. Carroll]

With the help of a test group, the author and his colleagues developed an interface that facilitates ease of use and ease of learning.

p.127 Why Is Software So Hard to Use?

[author Sam Edwards]

Chances are it's the software's fault and not yours.

p.143 Walt Disney and User-Oriented Software

[author Paul Heckel]

Software designers can learn a few things from Mickey Mouse about communicating ideas.

p.155 Making Life Easier for Professional and Novice Programmers

[author Andy Pope, Geoff Kates, and Dan Fineberg]

A debugger that "animates" the program's source code on the screen and lets the programmer engage in what-if analysis to find logic errors can drastically reduce debugging time.

p.161 Simplify, Simplify, Simplify

[author Martin Dean]

In an attempt to design a truly easy-to-use database manager, the author disregarded nifty features and clever, complex functions in favor of starting fresh .

p.177 Integrating Voice in the Office World

[author Robert T. Nicholson]

The ability to record a spoken message and store it digitally on a computer system makes possible a whole new range of applications.

p.189 The Starburst User Interface

[author Steven Vandor]

This software package helps you build efficient, powerful menus.

p.199 The Complete Information-Management System

[author Michael J. Brown]

The ideal information-management package maximizes hardware attributes and minimizes user interaction.

p.210 The Allegory of Software

[author Tom Houston]

Tired of the same old desktop metaphor? Maybe the digital kitchen is more up your alley

p.218 The New Interface Technology

[author Robert W. Warfield and George M. White]

A close-up look at mice, windows, and other software and hardware developments that make computer systems easier to use.

p.234 Trackball Interfacing Techniques for Microprocessors

[author Edward W Andrews]

This simple hardware/software interface device is easy to adapt to your interactive personal computer application s.

p.247 The User Interface: Two Approaches

[author Martin Herbach, Richard Katz, and Joseph Landau]

The philosophical vs. the pragmatic approach to the construction of an efficient user interface.

p.263 The Future of Metaphor in Man-Computer Systems

[author Chuck Clanton]

Learnability is the single most important concern in user-interface design.

Reviews

p.282 Reviewer's Notebook

[author Rich Malloy]

BYTE's product-review editor comments on products slated for review.

p.286 The Texas Instruments Professional Computer

[author Mark Haas]

Based on Intel's 8088 16-bit chip, TI's Professional Computer is the Data Systems Group's entry into the personal computer arena.

p.329 The ATR8000

[author Dave Small and Sandy Small]

With SWP's Z80 computer, Atari users can run CP/M-based programs.

p.343 The Hercules Graphics Card

[author Tom Wadlow]

lf you want crisp, attractive text as well as graphics on the IBM Pc, the Hercules Graphics Card is for you.

p.360 The Wang Professional Computer

[author Elaine Long]

This 16-bit microcomputer provides an easy-to-use word-processing program with sophisticated features.

p.372 In Search of the Most Amazing Thing

[author Elaine Holden]

This adventure game for the IBM PC, Apple, Atari, and Commodore 64 offers you an entire world to explore in your quest for a hidden Object.

Features

p.380 Color Graphics from Any Computer

[author Frederick B. Essig]

How to make highquality full-color graphics from your black-and-white monitor.

p.400 Mainframe to Micro: Adapting a Financial-Modeling Language

[author Greg Dunn]

As the microcomputer moves into the office, software developers face new challenges in translating existing mainframe software to the microcomputer environment.

p.417 POKEing Around in the IBM PC, Part 2: Subroutines for the BIOS Interface and Screen-Display Disk Storage

[author Hugh R. Howson]

In this final article, the author develops a general-purpose BIOS-interface subroutine that can transfer parameters from a BASIC program to the BIOS and can store BIOS results in memory.

p.443 The CMOS 6502

[author Steven Hendrix]

Rockwell's CMOS version of the 6502 microprocessor fills a number of gaps in the standard 6502's instruction set and offers low power-consumption advantages.

p.457 A Tiger Meets a Dragon

[author Dan Rollins]

A look at dragon-curve designs and how to print them on an IDS Paper Tiger printer.

p.481 A Computer-Algebra-Based Calculating System

[author Stuart Edwards]

By performing automatic unit conversion, this super-calculator saves time and effort and prevents common errors.

p.519 The User Looks at Books

[author Jerry Pournelle]

Jerry takes time out to round up the best and worst books on CP/M, Pascal, C, and Ada.

Nucleus

p.4 Editorial: Christmas in Chapter XI

p.7 MICROBYTES

p.11 Letters

p.358, 594 BYTE's Bits IBM Announces the PCjr; Two New Office Products from IBM

p.499 User to User

p.530 Software Received

p.546 Clubs and Newsletters

p.550 Books Received

p.554 Ask BYTE

p.568 Event Queue

p.574 What's New?

p.596, 598 Book Reviews: Electronically Speaking: Computer Speech Generation; Mastering CP/M

p.653 Unclassified Ads

p.654 BYTE 's Ongoing Monitor Box, BOMB Results

p.655 Reader Service