#### p.3 In the Queue (table of contents)

#### p.3 In the Queue (table of contents)

### __Foreground__

#### p.58 A -TINY- PASCAL COMPILER, Part 1: The P-Code Interpreter

#### p.58 A -TINY- PASCAL COMPILER, Part 1: The P-Code Interpreter

[theme : Software]
[author : Chung-Yuen]

#### p.94 LET YOUR FINGERS DO THE TALKING: Scanner Applications

#### p.94 LET YOUR FINGERS DO THE TALKING: Scanner Applications

[theme : Software]
[author : Ciarcia]

#### p.102 S2L: AN ALTAIR (S-100) TO LSI-11 BUS ADAPTER

#### p.102 S2L: AN ALTAIR (S-100) TO LSI-11 BUS ADAPTER

[theme : Hardware Design]
[author : Bondy]

#### p.166 WADUZITDO: How To Write a Language in 256 Words or Less

#### p.166 WADUZITDO: How To Write a Language in 256 Words or Less

[theme : Languages]
[author : Kheriaty]

### __Background__

#### p.22 THE MATHEMATICS OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS

#### p.22 THE MATHEMATICS OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS

[theme : Graphics]
[author : Posdamer]

[theme : Software]
[author : Kellerman]

#### p.68 SOME WORDS ABOUT PROGRAM STRUCTURE

#### p.68 SOME WORDS ABOUT PROGRAM STRUCTURE

[theme : Software]
[author : Hearn]

#### p.82 ANTIQUE MECHANICAL COMPUTERS: The Torres Chess Automaton

#### p.82 ANTIQUE MECHANICAL COMPUTERS: The Torres Chess Automaton

[theme : History]
[author : Williams]

#### p.114 MATH IN THE REAL WORLD

#### p.114 MATH IN THE REAL WORLD

[theme : Software]
[author : Boney]

#### p.156 GRAPHIC MANIPULATIONS USING MATRICES

#### p.156 GRAPHIC MANIPULATIONS USING MATRICES

[theme : Graphics]
[author : Hungerford]

### __Nucleus__

#### p.6 On Entering Our Fourth Year

#### p.6 On Entering Our Fourth Year

#### p.10 The NCC '78 Personal Computer Show

#### p.10 The NCC '78 Personal Computer Show

#### p.123 Programming Quickies: Plugging the KIM-2 Gap

#### p.123 Programming Quickies: Plugging the KIM-2 Gap

#### p.124 Clubs and Newsletters Directory

#### p.124 Clubs and Newsletters Directory

#### p.147 Technical Forum: Making an H9 Understand Lower Case

#### p.147 Technical Forum: Making an H9 Understand Lower Case

### __In this BYTE__

p.40 About the Cover... The computer artwork for the cover of this issue of BYTE is the work of Ed Kellerman, whose article appears on page 40. It was done using the facilities of IBM in Endicott NY, with the APL language as the major tool and a Tektronix plotter for producing the black images for the various colors of the line drawing component of the cover.

p.40 About the Cover... The computer artwork for the cover of this issue of BYTE is the work of Ed Kellerman, whose article appears on page 40. It was done using the facilities of IBM in Endicott NY, with the APL language as the major tool and a Tektronix plotter for producing the black images for the various colors of the line drawing component of the cover.

But we looked at the resulting artwork, and then asked Ed if he would allow us to provide some additional hand coloration by Ellen Shamonsky of our art department. (Ellen is the person responsible for the airbrush work on July 1978's cover, which we forgot to credit in that issue.) Ellen provided the multicolored airbrush background for the present cover, using the artwork supplied by Ed as the guide for positioning the various zones.

p.22 A background in vectors and matrices can give you a set of powerful tools for manipulating shapes on a graphics display. Read Jeffrey L Posdamer's The Mathematics of Computer Graphics. You may find that the mathematics is not as difficult as you think. page 22

p.22 A background in vectors and matrices can give you a set of powerful tools for manipulating shapes on a graphics display. Read Jeffrey L Posdamer's The Mathematics of Computer Graphics. You may find that the mathematics is not as difficult as you think. page 22

p.40 As other articles in this issue demonstrate, matrix operations are one method of manipulating graphics. The manipulations become simpler when the implementation language is designed to work with matrices. APL is such a language. Eduardo Kellerman gives us a taste of what happens when you mix APL and Graphics. page 40

p.40 As other articles in this issue demonstrate, matrix operations are one method of manipulating graphics. The manipulations become simpler when the implementation language is designed to work with matrices. APL is such a language. Eduardo Kellerman gives us a taste of what happens when you mix APL and Graphics. page 40

p.58 In this issue Kin-Man Chung and Herbert Yuen start a series of articles detailing the design and construction of A "Tiny" Pascal. Part 1 contains an overall view of the project along with a detailed look at an interpreter for pseudocode which is what the Pascal source program will be compiled into. The Pascal project emphasizes the portability of the language by compiling from Pascal to pseudocode which will then have an individual interpreter for every different machine. page 58

p.58 In this issue Kin-Man Chung and Herbert Yuen start a series of articles detailing the design and construction of A "Tiny" Pascal. Part 1 contains an overall view of the project along with a detailed look at an interpreter for pseudocode which is what the Pascal source program will be compiled into. The Pascal project emphasizes the portability of the language by compiling from Pascal to pseudocode which will then have an individual interpreter for every different machine. page 58

p.68 What constitutes a program, and what is the proper way to write one? Proper is a loaded word , but if ease of thought and unambiguity are goals of the effo rt, Some Words About Program Structure by Albert D Hearn will be a good starting point for the novice. page 68

p.68 What constitutes a program, and what is the proper way to write one? Proper is a loaded word , but if ease of thought and unambiguity are goals of the effo rt, Some Words About Program Structure by Albert D Hearn will be a good starting point for the novice. page 68

p.82 This month we conclude Dr James Williams's three part series on Antique Mechanical Computers with Part 3: The Torres Chess Automaton. Incredible as it may seem, Leonardo Torres built a working chess automaton in 1911. After a discussion about early concepts in the first "thinking" machines, the chess automaton is described in detail in this article. Dr Williams concludes the series with some philosophical speculations about automata. page 82

p.82 This month we conclude Dr James Williams's three part series on Antique Mechanical Computers with Part 3: The Torres Chess Automaton. Incredible as it may seem, Leonardo Torres built a working chess automaton in 1911. After a discussion about early concepts in the first "thinking" machines, the chess automaton is described in detail in this article. Dr Williams concludes the series with some philosophical speculations about automata. page 82

p.94 Steve Ciarcia completes his description of a non-contact scanner by describing the software that will Let Your Fingers Do the Talking. page 94

p.94 Steve Ciarcia completes his description of a non-contact scanner by describing the software that will Let Your Fingers Do the Talking. page 94

p.102 In an extended Technical Forum discussion, Jonath an Bondy presents a preliminary design for S2L: An Altair (S-100) to LSI-ll Bus Adapter. Here is a starting point for those interested in taking advantage of numerous personal computing peripherals in combination with the 16 bit Digital Equipment Corporation LSI-11 computer. page 102

p.102 In an extended Technical Forum discussion, Jonath an Bondy presents a preliminary design for S2L: An Altair (S-100) to LSI-ll Bus Adapter. Here is a starting point for those interested in taking advantage of numerous personal computing peripherals in combination with the 16 bit Digital Equipment Corporation LSI-11 computer. page 102

p.114 If you intend to use your computer for arithmetic operations it is necessary to have a floating paint arithmetic package. Joel Boney's article on implementing a binary floating point package will help you implement Math in the Real World if you don't have an appropriate package at your fingertips in a high level language or program library. page 114

p.114 If you intend to use your computer for arithmetic operations it is necessary to have a floating paint arithmetic package. Joel Boney's article on implementing a binary floating point package will help you implement Math in the Real World if you don't have an appropriate package at your fingertips in a high level language or program library. page 114

p.756 A displayed object can be defined within a matrix in a program. Once the object has been so defined it is a simple matter to perform Graphic Manipulations Using Matrices as described by Joel Hungerford. page 756

p.166 Are you faced with the prospect of owning a just built computer system bare of all niceties such as BASIC or even assembler? Somehow, it is difficult to impress noncomputer people by adding 1 to 1 to get 10. Larry Kheriaty has an interesting language to solve this problem. For Larry's solution read WADUZITDO: How to Write a Language in 256 Words or Less. page 166

p.166 Are you faced with the prospect of owning a just built computer system bare of all niceties such as BASIC or even assembler? Somehow, it is difficult to impress noncomputer people by adding 1 to 1 to get 10. Larry Kheriaty has an interesting language to solve this problem. For Larry's solution read WADUZITDO: How to Write a Language in 256 Words or Less. page 166